Poisoned-People

Pesticide Poisoning, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Lupus, Lyme, Neurological, Mold (Mycotoxin), MS, Metabolic Syndrome & All Manner of Environmental & Legal (System) Assaults Upon Human Health.

Tag Archives: organophosphates

DOMESTIC OR COMMERCIAL PESTICIDE USE: COULD YOU KILL OR BE KILLED?

DOMESTIC OR COMMERCIAL PESTICIDE USE: COULD YOU KILL OR BE KILLED?
By Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998; Hons I Social Ecology 1999, University of Western Sydney)

http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au
http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people (http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/poisoned-people–2/x/941124 or http://igg.me/at/poisoned-people)
http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/the-good-samaritan–8/x/941124 or http://igg.me/at/the-good-samaritan
http://murraythompsongraphics.x90x.net
http://www.causes.com/poisonedpeople
http://www.change.org/profiles/poisoned-people
http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/the-human-right-to-no-pesticide-poisoning

WordPress.com URL:  https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/11/06/domestic-or-commercial-pesticide-use-could-you-kill-or-be-killed/

INTRODUCTION

While at home or at work in a suburban residence, hotel complex or block of units, while living quietly next to an agricultural area or working your farm, while at the golf club or auto dealership, or while inspecting real estate or holidaying abroad, could you be injured or killed by a pesticide application, or could you inadvertently injure or kill someone with pesticide during normal use? Could a neighbor, pest control company or a farmer located nearby (or even as far away as nine miles) injure or kill you or your unborn by spraying weeds in their back yard or spraying their crops? What is the chance of a resident in a block of units spraying pesticide and inadvertently affecting a neighbor in an adjoining unit? What could happen if a person set off an aerosol fogger or an insect or flea “bomb” inside their unit just before walking out the front door to spend the day away from their residence? Would a wall between two rooms or units prevent pesticide from migrating into the baby’s room next door?

These are life and death questions that need answers in a world where pesticide use is skyrocketing.

1.0 HOW MUCH PESTICIDE IS IN USE AND IS PESTICIDE USE INCREASING?

“In the United States, more than 18,000 products are licensed for use, and each year > 2 billion pounds of pesticides are applied to crops, homes, schools, parks, and forests” (Kamel & Hoppin, 2004).

“Genetically engineered crops have led to an increase in overall pesticide use, by 404 million pounds from the time they were introduced in 1996 through 2011…” (Gillam 2012).

“GE crops are pushing pesticide use upward at a rapidly accelerating pace. In 2008, GE crop acres required over 26% more pounds of pesticides per acre than acres planted to conventional varieties. The report projects that this trend will continue as a result of the rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds” (Benbrook 2009).

Further: “The current massive reliance on glyphosate, which has been promoted by the rapid adoption by U.S. farmers of genetically engineered (GE) corn, soybeans and cotton, is a key factor in this epidemic of herbicide-resistant weeds. A report released in November of 2009, for instance, found that since the first 13 years of commercial use of GE crops, they have been responsible for an increase of 383 million pounds of herbicide use in the U.S. (1996-2008)” (BeyondPesticides.org 2012).

Note that herbicide resistance also registers as a morbid condition in nature.

2.0 DO PESTICIDES MOVE?

2.1 There Are Two Forms Of Pesticide Spray Drift
First and foremost, it should be understood clearly that pesticides sprayed in the open (especially agricultural pesticide sprays) easily MOVE.

2.1.1 Primary Particle Drift

The first type of pesticide drift is “particle drift (off-target movement during application)” (Owens & Feldman 2004:16). “The drift of spray from pesticide applications can expose people, plants and animals, and the environment to pesticide residues that can cause health and environmental effects and property damage… Where significant drift does occur, it can damage or contaminate sensitive crops, poison bees, pose health risks to humans and animals, and contaminate soil and water in adjacent areas” (Fishel & Ferrell 2012:1).

It is obvious here that wandering droplets of pesticide spray have a widespread and also UNKNOWN (unquantifiable) diabolical effect on the environment. What spray accumulates where (in soil, in crops, in humans), and how that spray COMBINES with other chemicals (which it will) and produces what outcomes is entirely untraceable. This is a superb example of the Precautionary Principle literally thrown to the wind.

2.1.2 Secondary Vapor Drift

Pesticide spray drift is also not just a matter of the above. Drift can also occur in a form that is entirely non-visible and almost totally undetectable, that is, “vapor drift (off-target movement when a pesticide evaporates from a sprayed surface)” (Owens & Feldman 2004:16).

Note: “…the full range of drift cannot be detected visually” (Cordell & Baker 1998:1). Further: “Drift isn’t limited to the period during or immediately after an application since it can occur hours or even days later… Days after application, pesticides can volatilize into a gas. Low levels of pesticides may be carried long distances by air currents. Vapor drift from a legal pesticide application is sometimes difficult to predict…” (ibid:2). The distinction being made here is “…primary particle drift and secondary vapor drift” (Cordell & Baker 1998:1). The somewhat lagged and staccato vapor drift is therefore pictured as “frequent, lower doses that drift by invisibly throughout the growing season, contaminating… air, water and food” (Peeples 2012).

2.1.3 Drift And Inevitable Poisoning Issues

Now, it should be asked here if volatilization of applied pesticide (resulting in pesticide vapor) can cause problems. “Some herbicide formulations are sufficiently volatile to cause plant injury from drift of vapor. For example, 2,4-D esters may produce damaging vapors, while 2,4-D amines are essentially nonvolatile and can drift only as droplets or dry particles. Herbicide vapor may drift farther and over a longer time than spray droplets” (Fishel & Ferrell 2012:2).

Again: “If winds are blowing towards a sensitive area, do not spray at any wind speed” (ibid:10). Who, today, factors in the unborn, or babies, or chemically-sensitive people (who are a MOVING TARGET) as a “sensitive area”? How could vapor drift NOT intersect a sensitive person?

How difficult is it to be safe when spraying, and in the days after spraying? “Letting neighbors know when pesticide applications will be made and, if possible, make applications during a time in which the fewest neighbors could be affected” (ibid:11). This caution highlights clear and obvious impossibilities in terms of widespread Occupational, Residential or Environmental Health and Safety. As well, it encapsulates gross deficiencies in terms of human interraction and communications quality. Is the farmer going to door knock to warn of a spraying and risk a negative reaction from a householder? Unlikely. Most Internet comments on Facebook from pesticide poisoning victims describe a complete deficit of communication in terms of an agricultural spraying event. In most cases, no-one will be warned that pesticide is going to be applied to a crop, or that herbicide is going to be sprayed on weeds. This further highlights the issue of pesticides in the hands of a largely uncommunicative, irresponsible and ignorant public, with people poisoning people at will and with almost no comprehension of the critical nature of this monstrous problem! This morbid and WHOLLY dysfunctional issue and dynamic (that, by the way, ensures maximum ongoing sales for pesticide manufacturers) will be addressed again below in Section 3.1.4.

As well, the pitifully deficient concept of buffer zones shows what a nightmare of toxicological logistics spraying pesticide in the open is! Note: “Buffer zones are untreated areas between the treatment site and sensitive areas. It is the area where no pesticide application should occur and is designed to catch off-target spray on their surfaces” (ibid:10). This inadequate idea shows, especially in terms of the vapor drift that will not obligingly deposit onto buffer surfaces, that there is nothing stopping any individual or sensitive area from being constantly exposed to toxic pesticides. This is further reinforced by the understanding that, “Pesticides in open water systems may float on the water, diffuse into the water, or deposit onto the sediments at the bottom of the water body. Pesticides that move from the ground surface through the soil may reach shallow ground water or deeper aquifers” (University of Minnesota 2003a). This means that rainwater runoff, streams, ground water, and well water are all available to pesticide contamination from spray droplet or vapor drift.

Pesticide migration is a global issue: “Six pesticides used in high volumes for agriculture travel from farm fields to the Arctic, researchers report in Environmental Science & Technology” (Lubick 2011).

Will your herbicide spray contaminate the environment and poison people beyond the point of application? Yes, frequently.

2.1.4 Further Drift and Transport Issues That Cross Time

This section brings into further consideration the above noted concerns where, “Days after application, pesticides can volatilize into a gas” (Peeples 2012). And that is: “Studies done in the recent past have found that air contains levels of pesticides that have been used in the past as well as those that are used today” (University of Minnesota 2003b). There is a recycling and movement of pesticide vapor occurring in the atmosphere that demonstrates that some pesticides are not very obliging of environmental degradational processes.

2.2 Pesticide Spray Drift: Areas Of Concern

Pesticide MOVEMENT is so critical an issue that the concept of “Areas of Concern” has been identified.

“Areas of concern are sites or living things that can be easily injured by a pesticide” (Cordell & Baker 1998:2), those being:

Outdoors:
• wells or surface or sub-surface water accessible via porous soil
• schools, playgrounds or hospitals
• endangered species habitats
• honeybee sites, parks or wildlife preserves
• ornamental gardens, crops [!] or specialized (sensitive) plantings (ibid.).

Indoors:
• habitat areas for the sick, children, pregnant women, the elderly
• all feed or food areas
• all locations for confined or domesticated animals
• all locations for sensitive or ornamental plantings (ibid.).

There is almost no place or environment where people or plants will not be poisoned. Pesticide use and then poisoning, therefore, is a “given”. Why? Because: “It is estimated that less than 0.1% of an insecticide reaches the target pests. Therefore, more than 99% of the applied pesticide is released and left to impact the surrounding environment” (Owens and Feldman 2004:16, citing Pimentel, D., et al. 1991).

If you use pesticides, you WILL poison other people. And you WILL poison yourself too.

2.3 Aggregate Or Cumulative Pesticide Impacts: Repeated Exposures

2.3.1 Insect Pest Resistance From Repeated Exposures

What we consider might be good advice on the part of a pesticide company — to set up a regular schedule of repeat spray treatments — is not good for Nature or us: “…it soon became evident of the devastating environmental and health harms that these toxic chemicals can cause. Furthermore, there are more concerns regarding the use of these chemicals. First off, as pesticides are recurrently applied, insect populations develop resistances to the chemicals. Also, the target pest’s natural predators are frequently killed off when pesticides are used. Additionally, as one pest species is eradicated, its competition may soon take its place” (University of Minnesota 2003d).

2.3.2 Human Health Impacts From Repeated Exposures

What must be emphasized at this point is the cumulative or aggregate risks inherent in small doses of pesticide. The toxicological problem exists, however, that “the effects of combined multiple and cumulative exposures experienced by children in the course of their daily lives remains virtually unstudied” (PANNA 2003). Our children are thus left entirely unprotected in the face of a stampeding worldwide technological regime that cares only about profits, not the viability of the Human Race!

In other words: “Organochlorine pesticides in women put future generations at risk” (Schafer, et al. 2004:29). How? “The fact that women—including women of childbearing age—have the highest levels of OC pesticides is cause for serious concern, as many of these pesticides are known to be harmful when crossing the placenta during fetal development. Documented health effects of in utero pesticide exposures include reduced infant birth weight, reproductive problems such as low sperm counts or other fertility problems later in life, and disruption of neurological development during infancy, possibly leading to learning disabilities and other neurobehavioral problems” (Schafer, et al. 2004:29, citing further examples [1]).

Further: “Neuro-developmental toxicants that have been studied, including lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, alcohol, and nicotine, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the developing brain to environmental agents at exposure levels much lower than those having a similar affect on an adult. Scientific understanding of the effects of these toxicants has emerged slowly, and the regulatory response has lagged even further. Meanwhile generations of children have been exposed to these chemicals at levels that may have caused irreversible damage. Evidence of this is the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recent consideration of lowering even further the screening threshold of lead, from 10 microgm/dl blood to 5 microgm/dl blood, since impacts have now been documented at these lower levels.(8)” (PANNA 2003).

And, although the USEPA (at least, on this particular web page) notes pesticide “exposures from food, drinking water, and residential sources” ONLY (not other sources) in terms of assessing cumulative risks, this shows that at least a deficient and begrudging appreciation of aggregate pesticide risks has at least made some kind of intellectual impact within a government organization. Necessarily, this exposure source listing also disturbingly highlights “EPA’s failure to account for drift exposures in either the organophosphate or the n-methyl carbamate cumulative risk assessment” (Goldman & Ruiz 2009:24).

Importantly, one of the USEPA’s basic cautions is: “The Agency has determined so far that five groups of pesticides each have a common mechanism of toxicity and require cumulative risk assessments because exposure to these pesticide groups may pose potential risks to human health and the environment. The five groups are: the organophosphates, N-methyl carbamates, triazines, chloroacetanilides, and pyrethrins/pyrethroids” (USEPA 2012).

We are not safe, ANYWHERE!

2.4 Pesticides MOVE From External To Internal Environments

2.4.1 Pesticide Ingress Via Soil And Slab

Pesticides applied to soil also MOVE through the soil and into homes through concrete slab foundations and other flooring types.

And, just for this moment as an exercise, wholly ignore the mountains of pesticide vapor that emanate from strictly agricultural areas. Also ignore the pesticide sprays typically used indoors for fumigation, surface sprays, etc. Just for a moment, only consider the mountains of herbicide sprayed ON TO THE GROUND, and then the mountains of chemical barrier pesticides sprayed and pumped UNDER THE GROUND. Then consider that this ground and its groundwater and ground gases are located around, near and just below (are therefore intimately connected to), respectively, the wooden flooring and the concrete slab foundations of a worldwide population of ground-floor workers and residents. Wooden flooring is subject to upward pesticide vapor migration and diffusion. And concrete slab foundations are subject to “vapor capillary movement/diffusion”.

Then consider also that a truly incalculable amount of herbicide is sprayed by home owners, councils, golf clubs, railways and the like on THAT GROUND. Remember, all that ground is connected to residences, and so then consider that most (Western) people spend most of their work and home time INDOORS: “Americans spend up to 90 percent of their time indoors” (Healthy Home Association 2012).

Once this understanding and sensibility is internalized, you can then appreciate that, in terms of suspended timber or other flooring types, pesticide vapor will intrude into the residence. Specifically of concern here in terms of raised flooring and concrete slabs is this issue:

“…pesticide moisture flow upwards through the concrete slabs by vapor diffusion and capillary transmission passes through the top surface of the concrete slabs as well as through floor surface treatments (carpet, tile, wood floors) and leads to un-healthy contamination problems. Today’s almost airtight buildings let in little fresh air and draw from the ground more “soil gas”, rich in moisture and vapors from pesticides below ground. Pores in concrete draw in water by capillary action. The average (slab) lets in over (10) gallons of water each day, several times more than showering and cooking combined!” (Healthy Home Association 2003).

Please see my Essay titled “CHEMICAL-PESTICIDE DIFFUSION THROUGH CONCRETE” located at https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/chemical-pesticide-diffusion-through-concrete or http://wp.me/p2DVqC-2M. Also, see my personal story of synthetic pyrethroid termiticide chemical barrier poisoning at http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people.

Further: “The EPA has reported levels of indoor air pollutants may be two to five times higher — and occasionally more than 100 times higher — than outdoor levels. The air inside your home could be more dangerous to your health than the air outside, according to a recent survey” (Healthy Home Association 2012). We can see here now that the domestic home, in particluar, will be a reservoir focus for, not just the toxics that arise from internal synthetic fixtures, paints, carpeting, lacquers, glues, solvent-based cleaning products and insecticide sprays, but also for the rivers of toxics that are pumped into the ground all around the home.

Will your herbicide spray move into your residence’s and your neighbor’s concrete foundation slab? Will your spray vaporize up through ground floor wooden or particle board flooring and into the internal living space? Yes. Everything is connected.

2.4.2 Pesticide Ingress Via Multiple Pathways

So insidious are pesticides that, more often than not, they cannot be kept out of homes: “A 1996 study finds that 2,4-D can be tracked indoors from lawns, leaving residues in the home. EPA research finds at least five pesticides in indoor air, at levels often 10 times greater than outdoors. Another EPA study finds residues of pesticides in and around structures even when there had been no known use on the premises” (BeyondPesticides.org no date). This mystery can only mean that pesticides have an unlimited MOBILITY via multiple pathways.

2.5 Pesticides CREATE DISEASE, PERSIST, And Are Intensely MOBILE, Including Moving Between Conjoined Units.

What you spray or wipe in one room or apartment will not only be adsorbed by surfaces and furnishings, but will also migrate into the next room or apartment. What your neighbor does in a block of conjoined units with insecticide spray or an insecticide “bomb” will impact on your living space. Sometimes pesticide sprayings can KILL pets and humans.

2.5.1 Heavy Home Pesticide Use And Toxic Exposures

Note: “Surveys have shown that more than 1/3 of all the pesticides used in the U.S. are applied in urban environments and most of these pesticides are applied in the home” (Miller & Koehler 2012). Further: “The use, misuse, and/or misapplication of insecticides in the residential environment can lead to acute, sub-acute or chronic exposures” (Ashley, et al. 2006:6). This means immediate exposure and poisoning effects, residual exposures, and chronic or long-term exposure effects.

Acute and chronic exposures: “Some OP pesticides are highly acutely toxic, some cause developmental or reproductive harm, and some are known or suspected to disrupt the human hormone (endocrine) system. Carbamate pesticides are very similar to the OP compounds in their effects on the human nervous system, interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. Some chemicals in this class are hormone disruptors and/or carcinogenic as well. OC pesticides are linked to both acute and chronic health effects, including cancer, nurological damage, and birth defects. Many organochlorines are also suspected hormone system disruptors” (Schafer, et al. 2004:13, citing Solomon, et al. 2000).

2.5.2 Persistent Pesticide Residues

Pesticide residues remain in homes after application, sometimes in significant concentrations. For example, “Chlordane residues last forever and cannot be cleaned up. Heptachlor, a component of chlordane, may last for several years in air and for 10 years in soil after application. Similar chlorinated pesticides like aldrin and dieldrin were also used and last for the lifetime of the home” (Simon, no date). And, given that Chlordane was only banned in 1988, there must be many homes still containing toxic residues of this pesticide.

Further: “Studies conducted in the last 10 years have documented the presence of numerous different pesticides in indoor air, in carpet dust, and on settled dust of surfaces in homes (Rudel et al., 2003). Concentration or surface loading levels for individual pesticides span up to five orders of magnitude (Gordon et al., 1999; Nishioka et al., 1999; Roinestad et al., 1993; Simcox et al., 1995; Whitmore et al., 1994)” (ibid.). As well: “…personal bug repellants or fumigants used in the home may be inhaled or collect as a residue on food or other surface areas” (University of Minnesota 2003c).
2.5.3 Insect And Pesticide Movements Around and Throughout Housing Structures

Will your insecticide spraying, surface spraying or insecticide aerosol fogger or flea “bomb” set off inside your apartment, which can all be described as “indiscriminate chemical extermination methods” (Ashley, et al. 2006:5), contaminate insects, people and pets inside and beyond the confines of your “private” cell in a conjoined block of units? Yes.

An important consideration to keep in mind throughout this discussion are residence walls made from drywall (also known incorrectly as “plasterboard”), gypsum board, wallboard, Sheetrock (“only US Gypsum Company’s board panels are referred as Sheetrock” [www.differencebetween.net 2012]), Gypsum Wall Board, or gyprock. What is so important here in terms of chemical migration and human health is that these products are porous and easily absorb vapors and gases from the air inside units and houses. Gypsum materials will be examined by this Essay.

As well, one should consider cinder blocks, and homogenous or laminated sheets such as fiberboard, MDF, particle board, masonite, Homasote, Fir-tex, Beaver Board, Feltex, Nu-Wood, Upson Board (Wilson & Snodgrass 2007) and other composite materials and boards used a great deal inside residences. This Essay will not (as yet) attempt to examine and evaluate these particular products in terms of their ability or otherwise to hold and re-transmit toxic vapors, or allow vapor to pass through.

And, regardless of the absorption and transmission of pesticide vapor via any of the above products, “a larger source of transfer between units on a mass basis would probably be leakage through unsealed gaps in the wall from electrical boxes, plumbing line entries, baseboards, etc.” (Gary Whitmyre [D.A.B.T.] 2012, email pers. comm) [2].

2.5.3.1 Insect Movements

In interior insecticide applications, many of the escaping and/or migrating insect pests will carry pesticide residues with them when they move to other residences. Please note:

• Insects carry pesticide residues (Pfleeger, et al. 1995:542).

• Pesticides enter the bodies of insects and become part of the overall chemical burden of the insects. In fact, “Contact poisons penetrate the skin of the pest…” (Encyclopedia Britannica 2012). Specifically, crop pollinating insects, honeybees, butterflies, dragonflies and wasps have all been found to carry “chlorinated pesticide residues of DDT, BHC and aldrin along with their metabolites and isomers” (Ahmad, et al. 1985:25).

• Cockroaches migrate throughout buildings, and often in response to pesticide applications: “Cockroaches migrate easily through multi-unit dwellings via plumbing and electrical connections” (Miller & Koehler 2012), and “from one unit to the next” (Health Canada 1999). Note that cockroaches are a great deal larger than the components of pesticide vapor drift. Further, “New, improved chemicals and methods to fight cockroaches may be a cause for alleged cockroach migration” (http://en.wikipedia.org/ 2012), especially when “incomplete application of cockroach control products has simply allowed the insects to completely avoid the treated areas” (Amalgamated Pest Control 2012).

• Flushing pesticides that contain pyrethrins can motivate cockroaches to move into previously uninhabited parts of a building (Peairs 2012). Cockroaches will migrate throughout a building and across barriers to avoid the pesticide.

Please note that spraying for cockroaches “may ultimately kill off the parasitic wasps” that are the “natural enemies of the American cockroach” (Barbara 2008). Many authorities therefore assert that regular spraying is counterproductive. I believe that pesticide resistance in pests, along with the killing off of pest predators, represents the overall basis for this assertion, while the opposite assertion made typically by pest companies — that a regular program of eradication should be put in place — is simply an irresponsible appeal to regular contracts and fees.

2.5.3.2 Pesticides Mobile In 3-D

There exists today a great deal of bias that fashions notions of pesticide immobility. For example, Bifenthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, is typically described as binding to soil particles (Fecko 1999:5) and remaining obediently immobile in soil. However, the following research begs to differ: “Recent studies showed that surface runoff facilitated transport of pyrethroids to surface streams, probably by sediment movement. Sediment contamination by pyrethroids is of concern due to their wide-spectrum aquatic toxicity” (Gan, et al. 2005:836-41).

Further: “Termites were killed in bifenthrin treatments, and this suggested the
movement of the chemical from treated into untreated sections. Su & Scheffrahn (1990) reported the movement of a pyrethroid (tralomethrin) from treated sand to the agar layer in their experiment against R. flavipes [the eastern subterranean termite], causing high mortalities even though the termites did not reach the treated area” (Boon-Hoi & Chow-Yang 2007:464).

Also: “When pesticides are applied to places such as homes, offices, lawns, gardens, fields, and water sources they become mobile in the environment… Excess pesticides that do not reach their “target” organism are free to move in the environment in other ways… pesticides have the potential to move in many environmental mediums and that their movement is three-dimensional… Pesticides, regardless of the medium that they are applied in, all have the potential to be transported by air” (University of Minnesota 2003a).

2.5.3.3 Insect Mobility, And Pesticide Concentrations/Mobility And Adsorption Into Surfaces

The domestic pesticide (or any other chemical) use issue is associated with “multifamily or conjoined housing in which infestation in one unit allows migration of pests to the adjoining units, and poor ventilation which does not allow the pesticide residue to dissipate after an application” (Ashley, et al. 2006:6, citing Health Canada, 2001; Alliance for Healthy Homes, 2003).

What should be noted first from this information is that pesticide vapors inside a residence will build up and become concentrated, essentially generating a “gas chamber” effect. What can then occur is interesting and frightening:

“A wide range of organic chemicals adsorb to surface[s] in the home, including fabrics, painted or unpainted wallboard, polyurethane foam (PUF) in furniture and pillows (pesticides love to adsorb to PUF). As the airborne levels of a chemical decrease in a room, equilibrium processes would force the same chemical that is adsorbed to a material in the room to de-sorb into air until the equilibriuim concentration of chemical in air would occur. The exact rate of release would depend on the physical-chemical properties of the chemical and the binding constant (or affinity) of the chemical with the material. This is a dynamic process that a lot of people in exposure assessment don’t pay enough attention to.

“Hydrophobic (“oil-loving’) pesticides and solvents also are absorbed into fatty foods like butter present in the home. Thus, an airborne chemical can become a source of dietary exposure. [A] classic study is the one in New York State from the 1990s in which levels of dry cleaning solvents in the butter of residents living over a dry-cleaning establishment were extremely high. This is referred to as “partitioning” of a chemical from air to food” (Gary Whitmyre [D.A.B.T.] 2012, email pers. comm) [2].

The dry cleaning chemicals were obviously able to effectively vaporize and move through the ceiling of the shop into the living space of the residence above, negotiate the covering of the butter and incorporate into the butter.

Further to this issue showing that pesticides exchange between air and surfaces: “non-treated surface compartments… can act as potential reservoirs for the chemical [pesticide]; carpet, vinyl floor, and walls/ceiling… In order to illustrate the use of our model, we used available data for wallboard to define a fugacity capacity as well as the diffusive transfer rates between the air and the wallboard (Tichenor et al. 1991; Van Loy et al. 2001; Won et al. 2001). Much of the available experimental work provides information to establish sorption and deso[rp]tion rates from a surface” (Bennett, Furtaw and McKone 2002:262, 264).

Further: “pesticide residues [can] migrate into carpet backing and pads” (Ashley, et al. 2006:15, citing Fortune et al., 2000). This being especially so if an excessive application of pesticide is not treated very early by the repeated detergent cleaning of toys, surfaces and dishes and via the “aggressive use of ventilation” (ibid.). If these measures are left too late, then “pesticide residues have time to MIGRATE into carpet backing and pads, where they are no longer amenable to removal by cleaning” (ibid.; my emphasis).

Also: “…pesticides may be absorbed into surfaces” (Nova Scotia Environment and Labor 2006:3.4). “Gyprock”, wall boards and drywall board will absorb pesticide sprayed inside the home: “Gypsum from recycled wall boards may come with a great variety of contaminants that have been absorbed by the drywall wherever it was in use. These may include pesticides, fragrances, cigarette smoke and a myriad of other poisons found in many households and offices” (http://www.eiwellspring.org 2011).

As well: “In existing houses, the drywall has often become contaminated by the prior occupants. Their use of fragrances, pesticides, laundry products, cigarettes, etc. may have been absorbed by the porous gypsum and is then slowly released into the room for many years after” (Eriksen 2010:1).

So, what you use inside the home will be absorbed into the gypsum of the drywall or Gyprock. Varying conditions will then allow volatilization of that stored pesticide through the paper backing on the other side of the wall, where a neighbor may be living in a conjoined unit.

It may even be possible for vapor intrusion and diffusion to occur relatively rapidly across the wall “barrier”. This, especially given an insect/flea “bomb” application that raises concentrations of pesticide to extreme levels:

“Aerosol foggers (such as flea bombs) can result in particularly high contamination of room surfaces (including floors, walls, counter tops, and the insides of cabinets), leaving residues hundreds of times larger than those left from crack and crevice application methods” (Riley 2000:6, citing Wright and Jackson, 1974). In this case, chemical vapors that move across divides into other rooms and units will be very potent and toxic.

Note that aggressive ventilation is often impossible in blocks of conjoined units, thus leaving many tenants and families exposed to these large flea bomb applications or commercial fumigations, and multiple smaller sprayings.

As noted previously, vapor ingress would first occur via air movement facilitated through the inadequate fitting, sealing and painting of the drywall itself, and especially via gaps associated with various fittings, joins, pipes and other common non air tight features of internal building construction.

2.5.3.4 Other Means Of Pesticide Movement

Pesticide vapor will move from roof cavity to roof cavity in a block of conjoined units, and this especially so when the building design includes little or no significant partitioning of the individual units above the ceiling line. Roof cavity air is often an easily shared quantity.

Pesticide movement considerations between residences should also never leave out the direct transfer of pesticide chemical from one unit to another occuring with neighbor and children visitations along with kids swapping possessions and adults moving furniture, all of which will contain pesticide residues from any internal spraying. As well, there are the more direct transfers that occur when people move from one residence to another.

Therefore, it is small wonder that CDC data shows widespread exposure to pesticides. “In some cases, the vast majority of study subjects had the pesticide in their blood or urine.” DDE was found in 99% and chlorpyrifos was found in 93% of the test subjects. The pesticides tested for represented only a portion of the total number of pesticides that people are exposed to, and this demonstrated that “most people in the U.S. carry a measurable body burden of pesticides and pesticide metabolites” (Schafer, et al. 2004:21-22). No wonder, then, that “The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates 20,000 emergency room visits annually resulting from pesticide exposure” (University of Minnesota 2003c).

2.5.3.5 Chlordane Mobility And Contamination

A very interesting take on Chlordane and other pesticide exposures in the home: “Chlordane was used regularly as a termite preventive for over 30 years, finally being banned in 1988, but unfortunately, not before contaminating millions upon millions of U.S. homes. Although 100-200 gallons of the chemical is usually applied underneath the home’s concrete foundation, it is now being found to migrate into the indoor air through either cracks in the foundation or around pipes entering the home. The principal of why this occurs is similar to that of a heavy boat sitting on the water that develops a pin-hole sized leak. Likewise, with a hundred ton home sitting on top of chlordane saturated sand – the high pressures underneath the home allow the vapors to be pulled into the lower pressures within the home. Other ways in which contamination can occur include accidental spills or through overspray saturation of the ceiling drywall boards if applied to the attic’s wooden 2×4’s” (http://www.chem-tox.com no date).

As well, “many other pesticides and herbicides used residentially may migrate inside of homes or contaminate well water” (Simon, no date). This seems to imply that pesticides move extremely freely: from soil to home, from air to home, and from soil to well water.

2.5.4 Home Pesticide Applications Move Offsite

Further, your pesticide can move off-site and leave your residence to contaminate the environment and people beyond your fence-line. This means pesticide can not only move from one room to another and from one conjoined unit to another, but it can also completely escape from a house:

“It should be noted that drift is not associated only with outdoor applications. Those handling pesticides indoors may not realize how easily some pesticides move offsite in the air currents created by ventilation systems and forced-air heating and cooling systems” (Cordell & Baker 1998:1). Air currents occur within residences (from room to room), between residences in blocks of units, and between internal and external environments. Usually, though, there is not enough ventilation in modern buildings to prevent Sick Building Syndrome.

2.6 Pesticides MORPH/DEGRADE/CHANGE, MOVE and PERSIST Across Time And Space

Pesticide residues pose continuing threats to human health long after a pesticide has been banned. An example of this is p,p-DDE, a waste or breakdown product of the pesticide DDT. Even though all uses of DDT were banned in the U.S. in 1972, the CDC revealed that “p,p-DDE was present in the bodies of youth in all ethnic groups aged 12–19 — i.e. in youth born long after the U.S. ban — indicating continued exposure from residues in the environment. This is consistent with PANNA’s findings of ongoing contamination of the U.S. food supply with DDT residues” (Schafer, et al. 2004:27-29, citing [3]).

If pesticide residues like p,p-DDE did not MOVE, then testing would not discover their presence in “food residue, house dust, soil and sediment samples” (Schafer, et al. 2004:29, citing National Water Quality Assessment Program, U.S. Geological Survey, http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

Further, “Other pesticides may degrade into chemicals that are more toxic then the original chemical. The “daughter” or degradation product(s) may then be toxic to organisms other th[a]n the one it was intended for… Pesticides are also degraded at different rates in the environment depending upon their chemical structure. For example, soil organisms might degrade a pesticide within days, whereas another pesticide might take hundreds to thousands of years to degrade. Degradation or transformation of a pesticide results in a change of structure and will change how it moves in the environment. Transformation may occur in any medium that a pesticide is in” (University of Minnesota 2003a).

3.0 ARE DISEASES, CONDITIONS OR ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EVENTS COMMONLY RELATED TO PESTICIDE USE?

What we also need to appreciate at this point in this discussion very clearly is that the above section on MOVEMENT also must simultaneously include and be followed by the movement or progression of pesticide-induced disease states. This means the evolution and movement of pesticide health EFFECTS: “Dramatic increases in the use of pesticides and other chemicals since the 1950s directly parallel the increased incidence of diseases associated with environmental contamination” (Schafer, et al. 2004:13).

However, and to be fair, we should also note decreases in pesticide body burden and morbid symptoms: “It is encouraging to note that researchers in New York City have documented a decrease in chlorpyrifos levels found in umbilical cord blood and an increase in newborn birth weights since the ban has taken effect” (Schafer, et al. 2004:25, citing Op. cit., R.M. Whyatt et al., 2004, reference 20). Wonderful (?) news for those born after the ban; not so good news for the others…

DISEASE AND MORBIDITY ARE ON A CONTINUUM WITH DEATH. Pesticides not only generate disease and contribute to early deaths, they also precede sudden deaths in terms of acute poisoning symptoms. And if diseases or poisoning events are indicated as being associated with pesticide use, then increased numbers of deaths (whether known or unknown; recall how untraceable pesticide movement is) will also logically follow.

By their very nature (silent, largely invisible, and difficult to identify and measure, especially in blood tests hours or days after ingestion and death) toxic chemicals are a very problematic quantity in terms of attributing their application, usage or even spillage directly as assertive causative disease or death agents. Nevertheless, given the burden of evidence now compounding and compressing lightyears ahead of lagged toxicological studies and legislation, this incredibly awkward dynamic itself now posits MASSIVE AND WORLDWIDE POISONING AS AN EXTREMELY COMMON OUTCOME OF PESTICIDE USE.

Why? How? Because it is known that mild to moderate pesticide poisoning symptoms can be easily misdiagnosed as stomach-flu, bronchitis or asthma (Reeves, Schafer, Hallward & Katten 1999:17). And, with a little more complexity added: “Because most of the symptoms of pesticide exposure, from respiratory distress to difficulty in concentration, are common in children and may also have other causes, pesticide-related illnesses often go unrecognized and unreported” (Owens and Feldman 2004:17, citing National Environmental Education and Training Foundation 2002).

Therefore, much illness is produced through pesticide and other chemical exposures as a supplementary or primary cause, but which illness is typically more easily and automatically attributed in millions of clinics worldwide to general cold/flu/gastro infections, and pollens and stress. This is especially so when the patient has only five minutes to explain their symptoms to the doctor. This dynamic, along with medical practitioners’ general ignorance of pesticide poisoning symptoms, assists greatly in concealing the huge range of pesticide impacts on human health.

3.1 Bedfellows: Pesticide, Disease And Death

Where is the modern rash of sudden deaths and new and resurgent disease coming from?

3.1.1 Direct Links Between Pesticide And Disease

• “Several pesticides, such as pyrethrins and pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates, are also known to cause or exacerbate asthma symptoms” (Owens and Feldman 2004:17, citing Salam. M., et al. 2004).

• Cancers, foetal death, miscarriages, premature births (NCAP, 1999:3; Bonn, 2005; Cox, 2004) and ADHD (Cox, 2004) are all now linked to pesticides.

• There are increased stillbirth rates with proximity to agricultural areas using organophosphate – pyrethroid – carbamate – or chlorinated pesticides (Sinclair & Pressinger, no date, citing Bell, et al. 2001).

• “A National Cancer Institute researcher who matched pesticide data and medical records in ten California agricultural counties recently reported that pregnant women living within nine miles of farms where pesticides are sprayed have an increased risk of losing an unborn baby to birth defects” (Owens and Feldman 2004:17, citing Bell, E., et al. 2001).

• Pesticides are strongly linked to birth defects (Montague 2001).

• “Studies show that children exposed to pesticides suffer elevated rates of leukemia, brain cancer, and soft tissue sarcoma” (Owens and Feldman 2004:17, citing Ma, X. et al. 2002).

• “Two separate studies in Sweden have linked exposure to Glyphosate to Hairy Cell Leukemia and Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. These types of cancers were extremely rare, however Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in the Western world. It has risen by 73% in the USA since 1973. Another study has found a higher incidence of Parkinson disease amongst farmers who used herbicides, including glyphosate” (Leu 2007, citing Cox 1998; Lehmann & Pengue 2000; Nordstrom, et al. 1998; Hardell & Eriksson 1999).

• Further, Swedish researchers have linked Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma to several commonly used pesticides. This cancer is increasing in the Western world extremely rapidly. Another study showed that Swedish sufferers were significantly more likely to have been exposed to MCPA (“Target”), fungicides and glyphosate (“Round-Up”) (Nexus 1999:7).

• Roundup is “a known carcinogen, neurotoxin, irritant, and has been found to kill human embryonic cells, and can cause kidney and liver damage” (BeyondPesticides.org 2012).

3.1.2 Traveller/Backpacker Pesticide Deaths In South-East Asia

“In the last three years, a dozen vacationers have died under suspicious circumstances in tourist areas of Thailand and Vietnam” (CBC News 2012).

As well, the article titled “Mysterious Deaths to Travelers in Southeast Asia: Pesticides are Blamed (VIDEOs). The World Health Organization suspects poisonous pesticides”, reports a rash of incidents involving the death of tourists. A number of young women and an elderly couple have died under suspicious circumstances. Typically, low blood pressure, respiratory distress, vomiting and dehydration, and cardiac arrest feature as symptoms before death. Both a TV3 investigation and the Thailand Disease Control Department appear to agree that pesticide poisoning is the culprit. The “Downtown Hotel”, where a number of deaths occurred, was destroyed. Another guesthouse where deaths occurred changed its name (Feldman 2012). As well: “Other media reports linked Bowerman’s and Huynh’s deaths to the 2009 deaths of Jill St. Onge and Julie Bergheim, who had similar symptoms in adjacent rooms at the Laleena Guesthouse on the island of Phi Phi. (The hotel has since changed its name)” (eTN Global Travel Industry News 2012).

Note: “The chemical chlorpyrifos is illegal for any use inside a home or hotel in most countries of the world. However, it is still legal in Thailand and Vietnam, according to Dr. McDowell [a U.N. toxic chemical consultant], and was found to be an ingredient in the pesticide that had been sprayed in the Downtown Inn. “The level of (chlorpyrifos) in this product is quite low and should not normally cause a problem. However, in my work we have found many sprayer companies ‘top up’ the level of (chlorpyrifos) when they are battling bedbugs in Asia” ” (Feldman 2012).

3.1.3 Pesticide Deaths (Human And Animal) Worldwide

A directly attributable death from a pesticide treatment: “Excerpt from Beyond Pesticides original blog post: Pesticide Exposure Kills Woman, Three Years Later EPA Files Complaint (Beyond Pesticides, December 22, 2008) The U.S. EPA has filed an administrative complaint, seeking a maximum penalty of only $4,550, against a pest control company that sprayed pesticides in a couple’s home, causing the wife to die shortly thereafter. It has been more than three years since the incident took place in Florence, Oregon…” (Philbrick 2009:3).

Deaths in the most vulnerable group: “The study compares 43,500 birth outcomes between 1995 and 1997, compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics in selected counties of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana… Death rates from birth malformations among male infants in high-wheat counties are more than twice the rates in low-wheat counties. In addition, the study finds an increased chance of circulatory and respiratory (excluding heart) malformations for infants conceived from April to June, a time that more than 85% of the acreage treated with chlorophenoxy herbicides is applied on durum wheat in the states studied” (Kepner 2003:5).

“In this issue, we cover the bad news: pesticides linked to… the death of 58 cows due to pesticide poisoning…” (Feldman 2003).

3.1.4 Pesticide Deaths And Non-English Speaking Pesticide Use In Australia

Sam Vella, 56, died of cardiac arrest while using a common herbicide in a paddock next to his house in Sydney’s south-west (Robinson 2010). It should be noted that the article stated that Mr. Vella’s older brother thought that Sam did not die from the pesticide itself. However, two clues remain: the older brother (who looks fairly fit and strong in the Herald’s photo of him), while demonstrating confidence in his own frequent use of the herbicide product, admitted that Sam had been ill following a stroke. Further, in the article, a police officer stated that “the three people who tried to help Vella were affected by the weed killer”, though a later statement seemed to indicate that, ultimately, the three were not treated (ibid.).

However, another news article was more definitive in stating that Sam Vella died “after ingesting the toxic fumes”. As well, the article noted that ambulance paramedics described the herbicide Vella had been using as a “highly toxic” chemical. Further, the article stated that the three individuals who tried to help Mr. Vella “showed signs of poisoning, including nausea and vomiting, and were taken to Liverpool Hospital” (Bevin 2010).

There are two critically important points that need to be made here. Given that the above article stated that after the event “21 people required decontamination due to chemical exposure” and that “NSW Ambulance Service District Inspector John Ellems said the toxicity of the chemical made the scene very dangerous for everybody” (ibid.), one must ask WHY ARE ORDINARY PEOPLE PERMITTED TO USE SUCH TOXIC PRODUCTS AT WILL AND DOMESTICALLY?

Further to this issue: “Weed and feed formulations of 2,4-D encourage repeated applications over the entire lawn area, rather than selective application to areas where weeds are present. Typically, weeds exist in only a small fraction of a lawn. Moreover, there is evidence that a substantial number of consumers do not recognize weed and feed formulations as pesticides. Furthermore, not all people read and follow label instructions. One study recently determined that only 53% of households report reading and carefully following the label when using pesticides and fertilizers” (www.panna.org 2005).

Further still in terms of the diabolical situation created by selling toxic pesticide products to those who cannot read the labels effectively, a ground-breaking study done on non-English speaking market gardeners in the Sydney Basin (Australia) by Prof. Frances Parker of the University of Western Sydney found that:

“Mostly growers (69%) could not read the labels on the chemical containers. Those who could read them said, “they were clear”. This, however, must be interpreted with caution, as the meaning they take from the labels may not necessarily be correct. All, particularly the women, stated that if the labels were in Arabic it would be easier for all of them to read it. Sometimes Johny (a former NSW Agriculture extension officer), or other Lebanese with experience, or their young children, help them to read the labels. Usually they buy fertilisers and chemicals from Lebanese shops or other stores. Sometimes the shopkeeper suggests that they buy and use suitable and effective chemicals. Most said that they spray once a fortnight. Although they stated that they use gloves and a mask, in practice they do not. In other words, they give the “expected response” to the question rather than the reality. Most mix the chemicals with bare hands and using a long stick for mixing. Most said that they disposed of the empty cans by the garbage bin, or by burning. One used the empty containers for storing petrol. They also stated that it is only when sprays do not work that they remove the diseased plants. The farm women wash the clothes after spraying, but only 15% washed them separately from their other clothes” (Parker 2000:65-66). I proof-read and created the graphics for this book. Prof. Parker was my former PhD Supervisor.

Few restrictions exist in terms of domestic pesticide use. Are those who have preexisting medical conditions ever effectively warned away from using toxic herbicides? Even owners of blocks of units apparently cannot prescribe how tenants use or don’t use domestic insecticides! The entire issue of pesticide use is a unregulated nightmare of global public health and slow-rolling Extinction Level Event proportions, all in supreme favor of continued and massive pesticide sales.

3.2 Global Disease Patterns on the Tail of Massive Pesticide Use

And broadly, how do these pesticide and other chemical causative agents trend in terms of global disease patterns?

• There is an increasing incidence of newly recognized or emerging, or re-emerging (resurgent) older diseases (World Health Organization 2002:10). Please see my Essay titled “DISEASE AMPLIFICATION IN THIS MODERN ERA: A DISASTROUS COMBINATION OF FACTORS” (https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/15/disease-amplification-in-this-modern-era-a-disastrous-combination-of-factors/).

Toxic chemical technologies are leading us into an era of unprecedented disease manifestation and resurgence!

• And on a slightly different note, also observe that the above data automatically demonstrate immeasurable loss of quality and potential of life in these tragically abbreviated, earlier adult and child deaths through pesticide-induced disease, be that chronic disease or sudden disease (acute symptoms) and death onset.

• If you are unborn, if you are a baby, if you are elderly, if you suffer from an existing illness (Ashley, et al. 2006:5, citing Watson, et al. 2003), or if you are pregnant (Ashley, et al. 2006:4, citing Avakian 2001), then you will be susceptible to poisoning from chlorpyrifos and “possibly the entire class of organophosphates” (ibid.) and even the so-called “safer” pyrethroids and their adjuvants and ‘inert’ ingredients.

As well, you may be subject to SUDDEN DEATH, if your existing illness includes stroke, Lyme or Lupus, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, a neurodegenerative disorder, OR even if you are young and fit and healthy and travel to South-East Asia for the trip of your death.
CONCLUSION

We have learnt in this Essay that we live inside a technological regime that demands we swamp our natural, living world with killer chemicals. The use of these chemicals is increasing. Further, pesticides are infinitely mobile and will find you wherever you are. Pesticides generate stillbirths, malformations, dysfunction (such as weed resistance), disease, debility, death and tragedy across the board.

Therefore, the chemical treatment of insect pest problems is a wholly inadequate, indeed massively destructive form of “technological fix”. The fact we are on such a synthetic treadmill, and have wrought so deep a wound in the fabric of a single Planet’s Web of Life, is a disgrace beyond words.

We may one day learn that to “fix” is not to fix, that the only way forward is with the permission of all the natural forces that we are immersed in.

However, until that dawning day and paradigm shift we are firmly tethered to the harsh lessons of this life. We are framed by problems so great that we would be accurate to describe our exposure to vehicle exhaust emissions, and pesticides, and food additives, and chlorine, and flouride, and sick building VOCs, and radiation, and pollution in this modern era as either an example of exceptional synchronous and accidental blundering across all human thought and activities, or a strangely coordinated worldwide assault (and profound learning experience) upon the very viability of human existence: an authored Extinction Level Event.

And further to our immortal and generationally repeating demand for self-destruction and the denial of the obvious:

“Most tragically, suffering, illness and disease surround us today in a way we would not have imagined a half century ago. We have banished some diseases only to have them replaced by a grumbling yet profound toxicity which is stripping our children of their rightful future” (Donohoe, 1998:38).

And, to sum up, an Aldous Huxley quote: “We are living now, not in the delicious intoxication induced by the early successes of science, but in a rather grisly morning-after, when it has become apparent that what triumphant science has done hitherto is to improve the means for achieving unimproved or actually deteriorated ends” (Huxley 2004).
NOTES

[1] a) Op. cit., M.P. Longnecker et al., 2001, reference 19a.
b) N. Pant, R. Shankar, and S.P. Srivastava, In utero and lactational exposure of carbofuran to rats: effect on testes and sperm, Hum Exp Toxicol, May 1997, 16(5): 267-72.
c) Op. cit., National Research Council, 2000, reference 22.
d) G. Solomon, and T. Schettler, Generations at risk: Reproductive health and the environment, (MIT Press) July 1999.
e) T. Schettler, J. Stein, F. Reich, et al., In harm’s way: Toxic threats to child development, Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility (Red Sun Press, Boston, MA), May 2000, see http://www.igc.org/psr/ihwrept/ihwcomplete.pdf.

[2] Gary Whitmyre, D.A.B.T., risksciences, LLC, 2111 Wilson Blvd., Suite 600 Arlington, Virginia 22201 (703) 351-5072 riskscicom@aol.com.

[3] Schafer, et al. 2001, reference 15; and Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA), POPs Residues in U.S. Diets. PANUPS, 4 December 2000, see http://www.panna.org/resources/pinups/panup_20001204.dv).

REFERENCES

Ahmad, I. [Iqbal], Siddiqui, M.K.J. and Ray, P.K. 1985. “PESTICIDE BURDEN ON SOME INSECTS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN LUCKNOW (INDIA)”; Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (Gheru Campus), P.O. Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, India. Source: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/456/art%253A10.1007%252FBF00394213.pdf?auth66=1352024871_e7620b9438459bdcc973783f9a68b334&ext=.pdf; accessed: 4 Nov. 2012.

Alliance for Healthy Homes 2003. Pesticides. Available online at:
http://www.afhh.org/hhe/hhe_pesticides.htm.

Amalgamated Pest Control 2012 [Online]. “COCKROACH CONTROL. Cockroach Control Methods”; Amalgamated Pest Control. Source: http://www.amalpest.com.au/LearningCentre/PestControlStrategies/CockroachControl; accessed: 28 October 2012).

Ashley, P. [Peter], Nishioka, M. [Marcia], Wooton, M.A [Maureen], Zewatsky, J. [Jennifer], Gaitens, J. [Joanna], and Anderson, J. [Jack], 2006 [Online]. “Healthy Homes Issues: Pesticides in the Home – Use, Hazards, and Integrated Pest Management”; U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; HUD.GOV: Secretary Shaun Donovan; Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Washington DC 20410. Source: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/documents/huddoc?id=DOC_12484.pdf; accessed: 22 Oct. 2012.

Avakian, M.D. 2001. EPA/NIEHS Superfund basic Research Program Research Brief 80:
Mechanisms of Chlorpyrifos Developmental Neurotoxicity. Available online at: http://wwwapps.niehs.nih.gov/sbrp/rb/rbs.cfm?Resbrfnum=80&view=.

Barbara, K.A. [Kathryn] 2008 [Online]. “Featured Creatures: common name: American cockroach”; University of Florida. Source: http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/roaches/american_cockroach.htm; accessed: 28 October 2012.

Bell, E., et al. 2001. “A Case-Control Study of Pesticides and Fetal Death Due to Congenital Anomalies.” Epidemiology 12:148-156.

Benbrook, C. [Charles] 2009 [Online]. “Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use: The First Thirteen Years”; The Organic Center, State of Science: Pesticides. Source: http://www.organic-center.org/science.pest.php?action=view&report_id=159; accessed: 21 October 2012.

Bennett, D. H., Furtaw, E.J. and McKone, T.E. 2002. “A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model”, Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA, vol. 1: Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA, pp. 261-266, 2002. Source: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9bf9w98d#page-1; accessed: 30 Oct. 2012.

Bevin, E. [Edith] 2010 [Online]. “Toxic spray weed fumes kill gardener”; The Telegraph, April 15, 2010. Source: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/sydney-news/toxic-spray-weed-fumes-kill-gardener/story-e6freuzi-1225853834599; accessed: 21 October 2012.

BeyondPesticides.org 2012 [Online], “Increasing Documented Cases of Glyphosate Resistance Discussed by Scientists”, Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog; 701 E Street SE, Washington DC 20003, 202-543-5450/info@beyondpesticides.org, http://www.beyondpesticides.org. Source: http://www.beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/?p=3034, accessed: 21 Sept. 2012.

BeyondPesticides.org no date [Online], “Pesticides in Our Homes and Schools”, schools, Publications; 701 E Street SE, Washington DC 20003, 202-543-5450/info@beyondpesticides.org, http://www.beyondpesticides.org. Source: http://www.beyondpesticides.org/schools/publications/pesticides-homes-schools-09.pdf; accessed: 30 Oct. 2012.

Bonn, D. (Dorothy) 2005 [Online], ‘Roundup Revelation: Weed Killer Adjuvants May Boost Toxicity’, http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2005/113-6/ss.html; accessed: 14 Sept. 2009.

Boon-Hoi, Y. [Yeoh] & Chow-Yang, L. [Lee] 2007. “Tunneling Responses of the Asian Subterranean Termite, Coptotermes gestroi in Termiticide-Treated Sand (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)”, Sociobiology Vol. 50, No. 2, 2007. Source: http://idisk.mac.com/chowyang/Public/091.pdf; accessed: August 2009.

CBC News 2012 [Online]. “Sisters’ deaths in Thailand not from DEET, Quebec coroner says. Family still awaiting full results from Canadian autopsies”; CBC News Montreal. Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/story/2012/10/10/quebec-sisters-death-thailand-coroner-autopsy.html; accessed: 22 October 2012).

Cordell, S. [Susan] & Baker, P.B. [Baker] 1998 [Online]. “Pesticide Drift”, Cooperative Extension (AZ1050, 9/98); The University of Arizona • College of Agriculture • Tucson, Arizona 85721.

Cox, C. 1998, JOURNAL OF PESTICIDE REFORM, Fall 1998, Vol.18, No. 3.; Updated 01-02, Northwest Coalition Against Pesticides, Eugene, Oregon.

Cox, C. 2004 [Online], ‘Herbicide Factsheet: Glyphosate’, Journal Of Pesticide Reform/ Winter 2004, Vol. 24, No. 4, Northwest Coalition For Alternatives To Pesticides/NCAP, P.O. Box 1393, Eugene, Oregon 97440 USA / (541)344-5044 / http://www.pesticide.org; accessed: 2005.

Donohoe, M. 1998, Killing Us Softly, Chemical Injury and Chemical Sensitivity 1.2 (internet Creative Commons release 2008), http://web.mac.com/doctormark/DoctorMark/KUS.html; accessed: 13/12/2008.

Encyclopedia Britannica 2012 [Online]. “insecticide”; Encyclopedia Britannica Facts Matter. Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289077/insecticide; accessed: 5 Nov. 2012.

Eriksen, 2010 [Online]. “Sealing walls and ceilings in a healthy house”; The IE Wellspring. Practical Tips for Coping with Chemical and Electrical Hypersensitivity. Source: http://www.eiwellspring.org/saferh/SealingWallsandCeilings.pdf; accessed: 31 October 2012.

eTN Global Travel Industry News 2012 [Online]. “Tourists mysteriously dying in Southeast Asia”; Sept. 14, 2012. eTN Global Travel Industry News; Source: http://www.eturbonews.com/31178/tourists-mysteriously-dying-southeast-asia; accessed: 22 Oct. 2012.

Fecko 1999 [Online]. “ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF BIFENTHRIN”; Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management Branch, Department of Pesticide Regulation, 830 K St. Sacramento, CA 95814. Source: http://www.pw.ucr.edu/textfiles/bifentn.pdf; accessed: 6 Nov. 2012.

Feldman, J. [Jay] 2003 [Online]. “Letter From Washington. Doing the Right Thing Persevering for change” in “Oppression and Farmworker Health in a Global Economy A call to action for liberty, freedom and justice”; Pesticides and You. A quarterly publication of Beyond Pesticides. News from Beyond Pesticides / National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP), Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 2003; BEYOND PESTICIDES, 701 E Street, SE n Washington DC 20003, 202-543-5450 phone n 202-543-4791 fax, info@beyondpesticides.org n http://www.beyondpesticides.org.

Feldman, J. [Judy] 2012 [Online]. “Mysterious Deaths to Travelers in Southeast Asia: Pesticides are Blamed (VIDEOs) The World Health Organization suspects poisonous pesticides’; iTravelerTimes. Source: http://www.itravelertimes.com/articles/2089/20120915/mysterious-deaths-travelers-southeast-asia-pesticides-blamed.htm; accessed: 2 Nov. 2012.

Fishel, F.M. [Associate Professor] & Ferrell, J.A. [Associate Professor, Agronomy Department; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611] 2012 [Online]. “Managing Pesticide Drift”; University of Florida IFAS Extension, EDIS. Source: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi232; accessed: 29 August 2012).

Fortune, C.R., Blanchard, F.T., and W.D. Ellenson. 2000. Analysis of aged in-home carpeting to determine the distribution of pesticide residues between dust, carpet and pad components. EPA/600/R-00/030.

Gan, J., Lee, S.J., Liu, W.P., Haver, D.L. & Kabashima, J.N. 2005 [Online]. “Distribution and persistence of pyrethroids in runoff sediments” in J Environ Qual. 2005 Apr 20;34(3):836-41. Print 2005 May-Jun; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. jgan@ucr.edu. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15843646; accessed: 11 March 2012.

Gillam, C. [Carey] 2012 [Online]. “Pesticide use ramping up as GMO crop technology backfires: study”; Mon Oct 1, 2012. Reuters Edition: U.S. Source: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/02/us-usa-study-pesticides-idUSBRE89100X20121002; accessed: 21 October 2012.

Goldman, P. [Patti] & Ruiz, V. [Virginia] 2009 [Online]. “PESTICIDES IN THE AIR – KIDS AT RISK: Petition to EPA to Protect Children From Pesticide Drift”; Submitted on behalf of United Farmworkers, Pesticide Action Network of North America, Physicians for Social Responsibility, MomsRising, Pineros y Campesinos Unidos del Noroeste, Sea Mar Community Health Center, California Rural Legal Assistance Foundation, and Farm Labor Organizing Committee. Source: http://farmworkerjustice.org/sites/default/files/Petition%20-%20Pesticides%20in%20the%20Air%20-%20Kids%20at%20Risk.pdf; accessed:2 Nov. 2012.

Gordon, S.M., Callahan, P.J., Nishioka, M.G., Brinkman, M.C., O’Rourke, M.K., Lebowitz, M.D., and D.J. Moschandreas. 1999. Residential environmental measurements in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) pilot study in Arizona: Preliminary results for pesticides and VOCs. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environ Epidemiology. 9: 456-470.

Hardell L. & Eriksson M. 1999, ‘A Case-Control Study of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and exposure to Pesticides’, CANCER Vol.85, No. 6 (March 15, 1999).

Health Canada 1999 [Online]. “Effective control of Cockroaches”; Health Canada. Source: http://www.aerokure.com/Documents/Insecte/cockro-e.pdf; accessed: 29 October 2012.

Health Canada 2001. “Tips to rid your house of insects and rodents”. Available online at:
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pmra-arla/english/pdf/pnotes/hhpests-e.pdf.

Healthy Home Association 2003 [Online]. http://www.healthyhomeassociation.com/1/hhmoisture.htm, accessed: June 25, 2004.

Healthy Home Association 2012 [Online]. Source: http://tomhoshall.webhost4life.com/hhairquality.htm, accessed: 21 October 2012.

http://www.chem-tox.com no date [Online]. “Indoor Air Contaminated with Pesticides”. Source: http://www.chem-tox.com/pregnancy/pregpest.htm; accessed: 20 October 2012.

http://www.eiwellspring.org 2011 [Online]. “Choosing drywall for a healthy house”. Source: http://www.eiwellspring.org/saferh/Choosing_Drywall.htm; accessed: 30 October 2012.

http://en.wikipedia.org/ 2012 [Online]. “Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states”; Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depopulation_of_cockroaches_in_post-Soviet_states; accessed: 28 October 2012.

Huxley, A. [Aldous; 1894-1963, British Author] 2004 [Software]. Quote in Your Ultimate Success Quotation Library 2004 [software], v3.0.1.36 (www.cybernation.com).

Kamel, F. [Freya] & Hoppin, J.A. [Jane] 2004 [Online]. “Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease”; ehp Environmental Health Perspectives; Environ Health Perspect. 2004 June; 112(9): 950–958. Published online 2004 May 20. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7135. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1247187/; accessed: 15 October 2012.

Kepner, J. [John] 2003 [Online]. “Columbia Court Says U.S.-Backed Aerial Spray Program Must Stop”, in “Oppression and Farmworker Health in a Global Economy. A call to action for liberty, freedom and justice”; Pesticides and You. A quarterly publication of Beyond Pesticides. News from Beyond Pesticides / National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP), Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 2003; BEYOND PESTICIDES, 701 E Street, SE n Washington DC 20003, 202-543-5450 phone n 202-543-4791 fax, info@beyondpesticides.org n http://www.beyondpesticides.org.

Lehmann V. & Pengue W. 2000, ‘Herbicide Tolerant Soybean: Just another step in a technology treadmill?’, Biotechnology and Development Monitor. September 2000.

Leu, A. 2007, ‘Monsanto’s Toxic Herbicide Glyphosate: A Review of its Health and Environmental Effects’, Organic Consumers Association, http://www.organicconsumers.org/, accessed: July 17, 2008.

Lubick, N. [Naomi] 2011 [Online]. “Researchers Follow Pesticides’ Migration To The Arctic. Persistent Pollutants: Four-month cruise finds traces of endosulfan and five other widely used pesticides”; C&EN Chemical & Engineering News. Source: http://cen.acs.org/articles/89/web/2011/12/Researchers-Follow-PesticidesMigration-Arctic.html; accessed: 28 October 2012.

Ma, X. et al. 2002. “Critical Windows of Exposure to Household Pesticides and Risks of Childhood Leukemia.” EHP 110(9): 955-960; Zahm, S., et al. 1998 “Pesticides and Childhood Cancer.” EHP 106(Supp. 3): 893-908.

Miller, D.M. and Koehler, P.G. 2012 [Online]. “Least Toxic Methods of Cockroach Control”; University of Forida IFAS Extension. Source: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ig105; accessed: 28 October 2012.

Montague, P. (National Writers Union) 2001, ‘#726 – Science, Precaution and Pesticides, 06-Jun-2001’, in http://www.rachel.org/en/node/5340; accessed: 16 July 2008. Reference [2] cited: Susan Osburn, RESEARCH REPORT: DO PESTICIDES CAUSE LYMPHOMA? Available by U.S. mail from Lymphoma Foundation of America, P.O. Box 15335, Chevy Chase, MD 20825. Tel. (202) 223-6181. ISBN 0-9705127-0-8. Available at: http://www.lymphomahelp.org/docs/research/researchreport/rr_2000.pdf.

National Environmental Education and Training Foundation 2002. National Strategies for Health Care Providers: Pesticides Initiative Implementation Plan. Washington DC.

National Water Quality Assessment Program, U.S. Geological Survey, http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa

NCAP (Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides) 1999, ‘Landscaping Nature’s Way: Using Natural Landscaping To Reduce Herbicide Use’, Journal of Pesticide Reform, Vol.19, No. 4, PO Box 1393, Eugene, Oregon 97440 USA.

Nexus 1999, ‘Pesticides & Herbicides are Poisoning Europe’, Nexus – New Times, Vol 6, No 4 (June – July), Ed Duncan M. Roads, Nexus Magazine Pty Ltd, PO Box 30, Mapleton, Qld 4560, Australia.

Nishioka, M.G., Burkholder, H.M., Brinkman, M.C., Gordon, S.M., and R.G. Lewis. 1996. Measuring transport of lawn-applied herbicide acids from turf to home: Correlation of dislodgeable residues with carpet dust and carpet surface residues. Environmental Science and Technology. 30: 3313-3320.

Nordstrom M. et al, 1998. ‘Occupational exposures, animal exposure, and smoking as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia evaluated in a casecontrol study’, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER Vol. 77 (1998), pp. 2048-2052.

Nova Scotia Environment and Labor 2006 [Online]. “Nova Scotia Structural Pest Control Training Manual, 2nd Edition”; Nova Scotia Environment and Labor; Source: http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/pests/docs/ApplicatorTraining_Structural.pdf.

Owens, K. [Kagan] & Feldman, J. [Jay] 2004 [Online]. “Getting the Drift on Chemical Trespass. Pesticide drift hits homes, schools and other sensitive sites throughout communities”; Pesticides and You, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2004. Source: http://www.beyondpesticides.org/infoservices/pesticidesandyou/Summer%2004/Getting%20the%20Drift%20on%20Chemical%20Trespass.pdf; accessed: 30 Oct. 2012.

PANNA 2003 [Online]. “Making the Link Between Chemicals and Learning Disabilities”; PANNA; Source: http://www.toxicsinfo.org/healthconnections/pannalearningandchemicals.htm. (8) reference in the quote body is: Lanphear BP, Dietrich K, Auinger P, Cox C. 2000. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 microg/dL in U.S. children and adolescents. Public Health Reports 115(6):521-9.

Parker, F. [Frances; Professor; School of Social Ecology, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury] 2000. “The Safe Use of Farm Chemicals by Market Gardeners of Non-English Speaking Background. Developing an effective extension strategy for the Sydney Basin”; Co researcher: Karunasena Suriyabanadara; Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC), Level 1, AMA House, 42 Macquarie Street BARTON ACT 2600; PO Box 4776 KINGSTON ACT 2604.

Peeples, L. [Lynne] 2012 [Online]. “Pesticide Drift, Sick Rural Residents Force Face-Off With Big Agriculture”; HUFF POST GREEN; The Huffington Post. Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/23/pesticide-drift-agriculture-_n_1696439.html; accessed: 23 Oct. 2012.

Peairs, F.B. 2012 [Online]. “Cockroaches”; Colorado State University Extension. Source: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05553.html; accessed: 28 October 2012.

Pfleeger, T.G. [Thomas], Fong, A. [Anne], Hayes, R. [Robert], Ratsch, H. [Hilman] and Wickliff, C. [Carlos] 1995. “FIELD EVALUATION OF THE EPA (KENAGA) NOMOGRAM, A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING WILDLIFE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON PLANTS”, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 15, No. 4; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, 200 SW 35th Street, Corvallis, Oregon 97333, USA
‡ManTech Environmental Research Services Corp., 200 SW 35th Street, Corvallis, Oregon 97333, USA. Source: http://210.77.94.226/local/ejournal/ETC/ETC1996/1504/ETC-1996-15(4)-535-543.pdf; accessed: 4 Nov. 2012.

Philbrick, J. [Jane; Ed.] 2009 [Online]. “Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog”; Pesticides and You. A quarterly publication of Beyond Pesticides. News from Beyond Pesticides: Protecting Health and the Environment with Science, Policy & Action, Volume 29, Number 2, Summer 2009; BEYOND PESTICIDES, 701 E Street, SE n Washington DC 20003, 202-543-5450 phone n 202-543-4791 fax, info@beyondpesticides.org n http://www.beyondpesticides.org.

Pimentel, D., et al. 1991. “Environmental and Economic Impact of Reducing U.S. Agricultural Pesticide Use.” Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture Vol. I. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. Pgs 679-718.

Reeves, M., Schafer, K., Hallward, K. & Katten, A. 1999, Fields of Poison: California Farmworkers and Pesticides, Pesticide Action Network North America Regional Center, California Rural Legal Assistance Foundation, United Farm Workers of America and Californians for Pesticide Reform (Publishers).

Riley, B. [Becky] 2000 [Online]. “Unthinkable Risk: How Children Are Exposed and Harmed When Pesticides Are Used at School”; Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, PO Box 1393 Eugene, OR 97440-1393, (541) 344-5044, http://www.pesticide.org. Source: http://www.pesticide.org/get-the-facts/ncap-publications-and-reports/healthy-kids-healthy-schools/unthinkableunintended.pdf; accessed: 4 Nov. 2012.

Robinson, G. [Georgina] 2010 [Online]. “Man dies while spraying plants with chemical”; The Sydney Morning Herald; April 14, 2010. Source: http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/man-dies-while-spraying-plants-with-chemical-20100414-sc58.html#ixzz29sppDpVD; accessed: 21 October 2012.

Roinestad, K.S., Louis, J.B., and J.D. Rosen. 1993. Determination of pesticides in indoor air and dust. Journal of AOAC International. 76: 1121-1126.

Rudel, R.A., Camann, D.E., Spengler, J.D., Korn, L.R., and J.G. Brody. 2003. Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environmental Science & Technology. 37(20): 4543-53.

Salam. M., et al. 2004. “Early Life Risk Factors for Asthma: Findings From the Children’s Health Study.” EHP 112(6):760-65.

Schafer, K. [Kristen], Kegley, S.E. and Patton, S. 2001. “Nowhere to Hide: Persistent Toxic Chemicals in the U.S. Food Supply”. Pesticide Action Network North America and Commonweal (San Francisco CA) March 2001, http://www.panna.org/resources/documents/nowhereToHideAvail.dv.html.

Schafer, K.S. [Kristen], Reeves, M. [Margaret], Spitzer, S. [Skip], and Kegley, S.E. [Susan] 2004 [Online]. “Chemical Trespass. Pesticides in Our Bodies and Corporate Accountability”; Pesticide Action Network North America.

Simcox, N.J., Fenske, R.A., Wolz, S.A., Lee, I.C., and D. Kalman. 1995. Pesticides in housedust and soil: Exposure pathways for children of agricultural families. Environmental Health Perspectives. 103: 1126-1134.

Simon, R.K. no date [Online]. “Home Buyers Alert: What May Be in the Home You Are Buying?”; R.K. Simon, Ph.D. RPIH, CEC, DABB, Laboratory Director, Environmental & Toxicology International, 11244 Waples Mill Road, H2
Fairfax, VA 22030. Source: http://www.getipm.com/products/toxicology.htm&#8217; accessed: 28 October 2012.

Sinclair, W. (M.D.; Board Certified Immunology) & Pressinger, R. (M.Ed.) no date [Online], Home and Lawn Pesticides More Dangerous than Previously Believed, http://www.chem-tox.com.pesticides, accessed: 17 July 2008.

Solomon, G., Ogunseitan, O. and Kirsch, J. 2000. “Pesticides and Human Health, Physicians for Social Responsibility and Californians for Pesticide Reform”, (San Francisco, CA); see http://www.psrla.org/pesthealthmain.htm.

University of Minnesota 2003a [Online]. “Pesticides in the Environment: Pesticide Transport and Fate”; University of Minnesota; Fall Semester 2003, PubH 5103: Exposure to Environmental Hazards. Source: http://enhs.umn.edu/current/5103/pesticide/fate.html; accessed: 30 October 2012.

University of Minnesota 2003b [Online]. “Pesticides in the Environment: Monitoring Pesticides in the Environment”; University of Minnesota; Fall Semester 2003, PubH 5103: Exposure to Environmental Hazards. Source: http://enhs.umn.edu/current/5103/pesticide/fate.html; accessed: 30 October 2012.

University of Minnesota 2003c [Online]. “Pesticides in the Environment: Exposure Pathways”; University of Minnesota; Fall Semester 2003, PubH 5103: Exposure to Environmental Hazards. Source: http://enhs.umn.edu/current/5103/pesticide/fate.html; accessed: 30 October 2012.

University of Minnesota 2003d [Online]. “Pesticides in the Environment: Strategies for Preventing and Controlling Pesticides”; University of Minnesota; Fall Semester 2003, PubH 5103: Exposure to Environmental Hazards. Source: http://enhs.umn.edu/current/5103/pesticide/fate.html; accessed: 30 October 2012.

USEPA 2012 [Online]. “Assessing Pesticide Cumulative Risk”; U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Pesticides: Health and Safety. Source: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/cumulative/; accessed: 2 Nov. 2012.

Watson, W.A., Litovitz, T.L., Rodgers, G.C., Klein-Schwartz, W., Youniss, J., Rose, Rutherfoord, Borys, D., and M.E. May 2003. 2002 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Americal Journal of Emergency Medicine. 21(5): 353-421.

Whitmore, R.W., Immerman, F.W., Camann, D.E., Bond, A.E., Lewis, R.G., and J.L. Schaum. 1994. Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities. Archives ofEnvironmental Contamination and Toxicology. 26: 47-59.

Whyatt, R.M., Rauh, V., Barr, D.B, et al., 2004. “Prenatal Insecticide Exposures, Birth Weight and Length Among an Urban Minority Cohort”, Environ Health Perspect, 2004, doi:10.1289/ehp.6641, see http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2004/6641/6641.html.

Wilson, R. [Richa] & Snodgrass, K. [Kathleen] 2007 [Online]. “Early 20th-Century Building Materials: Fiberboard and Plywood”; Facilities Tech Tips: United States Department of Agriculture Forestry Service Technology & Development Program. Source: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/htmlpubs/htm07732308/index.htm; accessed: 1 Nov. 2012.

World Health Organization 2002 [Online]. WHO Technical Report Series 907: “FUTURE TRENDS IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH”; Source: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_907.pdf; accessed: 10 October 2012.

Wright and Jackson. 1974. A comparison of residues produced by spraying and fogging of diazinon in buildings. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 12(2):177-181.

http://www.differencebetween.net 2012 [Online]. “Difference Between Sheetrock and Drywall”; DifferenceBetweeen.net. Source: http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/difference-between-sheetrock-and-drywall/#ixzz2Avk6A9kZ; accessed: 1 Nov. 2012.

http://www.panna.org 2005 [Online]. “PANUPS: Tell EPA to Put the Brakes on 2,4-D”; Pesticide Action Network Updates Service (PANUPS), March 10, 2005. Source: http://www.panna.org/legacy/panups/panup_20050310.dv.html; accessed: 2 Nov. 2012.

Advertisements

THE 3 MODES/PHASES OF EXPRESSION OF GUILTY INJURERS

THE 3 MODES/PHASES OF EXPRESSION OF GUILTY INJURERS WHEN JUSTIFYING THEIR NEGLIGENCE AND REPUDIATING YOUR INJURIES (pesticide poisoning and toxic insult, MCS (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity), chemical intolerance, chemical poisoning, toxic shock, Lupus, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, TILT (Toxicant Induced Loss of Tolerance), solvent-induced short-term memory problems, neurodegenerative disorders, ADHD, lymphoma, ME, birth defects, etc.)

By Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998; Hons I Social Ecology 1999, University of Western Sydney)

http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au
http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people
http://murraythompsongraphics.x90x.net
http://www.causes.com/poisonedpeople
http://www.change.org/profiles/poisoned-people
http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/the-human-right-to-no-pesticide-poisoning

Essay URL:  https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/chemical-pesticide-diffusion-through-concrete
Short link:  http://wp.me/p2DVqC-2M

1. Silence: ignoring your complaints.
2. Ridicule: saying the pesticide application or other procedure was done according to “Australian Standards” or law, so you couldn’t have possibly been injured. Your perceptions are entirely mistaken: this is the start of the implication that you’re a miscreant and a liar, have ulterior and impure motives, and are “picking on” the corporate body in question.
3. Attack: the total repudiation of every aspect of your character, with moves toward trying to elicit a suicide response in you. Further, the potential always exists within this institutionalized and aberrant thought framework for actual attempts on the injury victim’s life in order to silence them without getting their hands dirty = basically getting someone else to do the deed for them, ‘legally’, ‘accidentally’.

I think the “Attack” stage of, especially, intellectually degenerate corporate thought (including legal thought) is where the guilty party’s thinking has, over time, turned full circle and they are then willfully corrupting themselves. Intention means willful authorship. This is where they become utterly OCD’d on self justification and self protection. They cannot be corrected and they literally cannot stop (unless a higher power with higher character or even more obsessive motivations steps in). That’s when they collude, in a kind of organised “mass-effect”, to character assassinate, or to hurt or ‘destroy’/ruin on some valued level, or even to actually murder (this level of response is, granted, unusual but certainly not unknown). This response progression or framework is typical of many political processes, and is a pathologically persistent, even immortal characteristic of, especially, corporate Human Nature.

See: http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people

Who is Funding the California GMO Labeling Ballot Initiative?

Who is Funding the California GMO Labeling Ballot Initiative?
(http://organicconsumersfund.org/label/prop-37-f…; accessed: 19 October 2012)

Monsanto Company
DuPont Pioneer
E.I. Dupont De Nemours & Co.
Bayer CropScience
Dow Agrosciences LLC
Syngenta Corporation
BASF Plant Science
PepsiCo Inc.
Nestle USA
Coca-Cola North America
ConAgra Foods
General Mills Inc.
Del Monte Foods Co.
Kellogg Co.
Council for Biotechnology Information
Kraft Foods Global
H.J. Heinz
Hershey Company
J.M. Smucker Co.
Grocery Manufacturers Association
Hormel Foods Corp.
Bumble Bee Foods LLC
Ocean Spray Cranberries Inc.
Sara Lee Corp.
Bimbo Bakeries USA
Pioneer Hi-Bred International (a DuPont business)
Mars Inc.
Pinnacle Foods Group LLC
Dean Foods Co.
Campbell Soup Co.
Biotech Industry Organization
McCormick & Co. Inc.
Smithfield Foods
Rich Products Corp.
Cargill Inc.
Abbot Nutrition
Dole Packaged Foods Co.
Knouse Foods Cooperative
W.M. Wrigley Jr. Co.
Mars Food North America
Sunny Delight Beverages Co.
Bunge North America
Land O’ Lakes Inc.
Hero North America

CHEMICAL-PESTICIDE DIFFUSION THROUGH CONCRETE

CHEMICAL/PESTICIDE DIFFUSION THROUGH CONCRETE: THIS MEANS THAT PESTICIDE/HERBICIDE SPRAYED ON THE GROUND ENTERS A RESIDENCE’S FOUNDATION SLAB AND POISONS ALL FAMILY MEMBERS!

A Study Showing That Concrete Is Highly Porous, Allowing the Penetration and Diffusion of Chemicals, Including Pesticides Into Homes. This means that any pesticide in the soil next to a building WILL migrate into that building via the foundation slab: The result is “Sick Building Syndrome”

Collated & written by Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998, Hons I Social Ecology 1999, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury)

June 2004, February/April 2012

Web sites:  http://poisonedpeople.comhttp://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au; http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people

Preamble

This study has been created in order to demonstrate clearly that available and reputable scientific studies and industry experience highlight the fact that concrete slabs upon which residences are situated are extremely porous, and to the extent that almost any chemical situated under or next to the slab (e.g. as in a termiticide chemical barrier treatment) will be absorbed by the slab.

I have produced this study to specifically emphasize that:

1.  If you use Roundup or any other pesticide/herbicide, for example, around your home, then you are poisoning your family and your neighbors’ families.  Your herbicide WILL enter all homes within reach, especially if those residences are situated on top of a concrete slab foundation.

2.  it is much more than probable that the synthetic pyrethroid termiticide Biflex that was applied around, and immediately next to, the concrete slab under my Department of Housing (DOH) unit located at BLIGH PARK (north-west Sydney), on the 7th December 2000, diffused through that slab and outgassed into my unit as vapor for at least 1½ years after application (the period in which I could overtly smell an organic, kerosene-like odor inside my unit).

The presence, then, of the pesticide/solvent vapor in the living space of my unit resulted in the production of a series of extremely distressing poisoning symptoms over that period of time and beyond in both myself and my 8 year old child, and also in my neighbour (whose unit shared the same concrete slab as mine).  At the very least, the gaseous solvent portion of the termiticide compound entered my unit via the foundation slab.  Note that only just before my trial against the Department of Housing, which started in November 2010, I discovered that the builders of the unit had dumped unused concrete around the perimeter of the unit’s foundation slab.  This concrete dump (which was joined to the slab) was immediately under where the Biflex pesticide was pumped during its main 7th Dec., 2000 application of hundreds of liters.  See the following photos for evidence of this:

And see the following video evidence of the concrete dump joined to the foundation slab:

Discussion

1.  First, what is concrete?

“Concrete is a heterogeneous material constituted of a rigid skeleton with sand and aggregates embedded into a porous hydraulic binder.  A hydraulic binder as Portland cement is a finely ground material which is first in a plastic and workable state on mixing with water and then reacts with water to form hydrates responsible for the rigidity.  The concrete behavior is linked to the evolution of the cementitious matrix which can be considered as permanently aging material.  Concrete is therefore the site of chemical, mechanical and physical events like hydration, moisture transfer or shrinkage that can cause premature cracking before any external loading occurs” (Lamour, Haouas & Moranville [online]).

Also:

“Concrete is a porous material.  Therefore, moisture movement can occur by flow, diffusion, or sorption” (Advanced Cement Technologies [online]).

Concrete structures are thus highlighted as porous, ageing, and the site of mechanical and chemical events.

2.  How ‘open’ or consistently spread are the pores or spaces inside concrete, and do these pores affect the concrete in any way?

“Concrete contains two types of pore: capillary and gel pores.

Capillary pores (approx) 1,3 um in size are the largest and form an interconnected system, randomly distributed throughout the binder, which provides a fairly direct path for aggressive ions.  Gel pores on the other hand comprise some 28% of the gel, but are much smaller than capillary pores, and do not play a significant role in the permeability of the paste.  However, they do have an impact on time dependent movements in concrete, such as shrinkage and creep” (Eagle Cement (Natal Portland Cement) [online]).

Also:

“The presence of capillary pores and air voids influence concrete permeability to a large extent.  The ingress of aggressive agents into the pore structure is responsible for various durability problems in concrete structure.  The deterioration of concrete in a structure is a result of several degradation mechanisms that [cause a decrease] in the integrity of the structure.  The state of deterioration is often invisible and is only evident when there is a significant reduction in the load carrying capacity” (Sutan, Hamdan and Jin, 2002).

So, concrete, by its very nature, is porous.  As well, concrete may then deteriorate “with chemical reactions of unhydrated cement and water, C3A and chloride ions, carbonic ions and calcium silicate hydrates” (Watanabe [online]).

Further: “Slab failures from caustic attack, in particular, can reduce the service life of slabs down to as little as five years, with most slabs providing an average life of only ten years, even though some predict a service life of 40 years with the application of current best practice” (CSIRO 2001 [online]).

There exist products designed specifically to take advantage of the porosity of concrete.  One such product is named Xypex, which “is designed to penetrate and react with the mineral constituents of cement-based materials. It can be applied on concrete, concrete-block, cement stucco or the mortar between bricks” (Xypex Chemical Corporation 2002a [online]).

What is Xypex?

“XYPEX is a non-toxic, chemical treatment for waterproofing, repair and protection of concrete from a range of aggressive media, uniquely generating a non-soluble crystalline formation deep within the pores and capillary tracts of concrete” (Xypex Chemical Corporation 2002b [online]).

Xypex is therefore designed to penetrate concrete in order to prevent the concrete from allowing such penetration of fluids.

Without this protection concrete would be open to the ingress of any pesticide put in the soil next to or above/around the concrete.  Conceivably also, pesticide sprayed in the air would also move into concrete structures.

3.  By what process does Xypex penetrate concrete?

“Why must the concrete be wet prior to a XYPEX application?

The active ingredients in XYPEX penetrate the concrete by a process of chemical diffusion in which chemicals in a highly concentrated solution (the XYPEX slurry mixture) will spread through a solution of lower density (water in the pores and capillaries of the concrete) until the two are equalized” (Xypex Chemical Corporation 2002a).

The above quote implies that water may be found inside a concrete slab, and that this water offers a transmission route for chemicals to move via the agency of chemical diffusion.  Note what modern research on Diffusive Pollutant Transport has to say about chemical diffusion:

“The objective of controlling the hydraulic conductivity is clearly one of limiting advective contaminant transport (ie the movement of contaminants with moving water) through the liner.    However, despite more than a decade of research and the existence of good supporting field data, it is only recently that it has been generally recognized that there is a second contaminant transport process which will occur even through a very low hydraulic conductivity clay liner: that process is chemical diffusion.    …diffusion may be the dominant contaminant transport mechanism in a well‐constructed clay liner.    Furthermore, contaminants can escape from a waste disposal site, by diffusion through a liner, even if water flow in the liner is into the landfill” (Rowe,1994:219) (emphasis added).

Note too:

“Baroghel-Bouny (1994) among others showed that water transport occurs in porous cementitious materials through different modes: vapor diffusion, liquid water and air pressure driven transports” (Lamour, Haouas & Moranville 2004).

Note also McGrath (2000) who shows that large amounts of water can move through concrete (even apparently dry concrete) in a vapor, gaseous or dissolved ion state (in any direction, depending on flow direction dynamics set up by cooling and heating cycles) from a region of high concentration or high chemical potential through to low concentration or low chemical potential via diffusion.  He clearly shows that concrete cannot keep out anything unless it is treated:

“On the largest scale water or chemicals may move through cracks, rock pockets, construction joints and other large defects or joints in the concrete structure.  This scale of flow is of primary importance with respect to “waterproofing” and involves keeping water out or in….”

It is therefore clear that chemicals can be transported through concrete in either a liquid or vapor form.

4.  Can pesticide, specifically, enter a residence via a concrete slab?

Note that the Healthy Home Association recognizes that soil around foundation slabs is host to substances that are drawn into residences via the lower internal air pressure gradient typical of homes.  Further, the Association recognizes that these substances enter the slab via pores in the concrete structure of the slab.  However, what are these substances?  Soil gas, radon, biological decomposition gases and… PESTICIDE(2003]).  Note:

“Pesticide moisture flow upwards through the concrete slabs by vapor diffusion and capillary transmission passes through the top surface of the concrete slabs as well as through floor surface treatments (carpet, tile, wood floors) and leads to un-healthy contamination problems.

Today’s almost airtight buildings let in little fresh air and draw from the ground more “soil gas”, rich in moisture and vapors from pesticides below ground. Pores in concrete draw in water by capillary action.  The average (slab) lets in over (10) gallons of water each day, several times more than showering and cooking combined!” (ibid.).

As well, so readily does the building industry accept that pesticides can penetrate concrete slabs, that the XYPEX Product Features brochure entitled: UndersealTM XT 750 Positive Side Vertical Waterproofing Membrane with Built-in Protection Board, lists its product’s property, test method, and results (English and Metric) as: “Resistance to Penetration by Pesticides”, “ASTM F- 2130 percentage of penetration”, and “0.0 % 0.0%”, respectively (Polyguard Products Inc. 2003 [online]) (my emphasis).

If cautions regarding the use of mildewcides in buildings are advocated in United States product literature, then why are they not advocated by government bureaucracies that deal directly and intimately with dwellings and tenants, such as the DOH in Australia?  Where does the DOH tenant fit into what should be an ethical discussion in terms of chemical applications in and around a tenant’s home?  Are tenants worthy of consultation at all, especially given – as in my case – that I had already made it patently obvious to the DOH prior to moving into my DOH unit that I suffered from chemical sensitive asthma?  Now in going back a step to the US situation, note:

“Safe Encasement Systems believes that the use of a coating that contains a potentially harmful or poisonous substance such as an EPA-registered pesticide (mildewcide) is a step that should be taken only after extensive consideration and discussion with all parties involved” (Safe Encasement Systems Midwest 2001).

Concrete slabs are well known to soak up water and chemicals from their surrounds, readily.

5.  Can organic chemicals enter a residence any other way?

“Recent investigations have found that organic chemicals may contaminate drinking water by permeating buried plastic pipes and gasket materials…  Many lipophilic compounds tested were found to permeate to a detectable level in consumers’ tap water within a month at one third of their aqueous solubilities.  It was also found that PB [polybutylene] was more permeable than low-density polyethylene to toluene and that chlorinated hydrocarbons permeated PB faster than unchlorinated hydrocarbons.  Gasoline compositions such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes appeared to be highly permeable to PB and gasket material” (Park, Bontoux, Holsen, Jenkins & Selleck 1991).

The Pesticides Act (1999) obviously needs a significant overhaul in order for it to take into account the duel imperatives of the concept of Chemical Trespass and basic human rights (the right to be notified of a chemical application).  This is, in fact, currently a task being undertaken by the Australian Chemical Trauma Alliance (ACTA) in South Australia, which “is making a submission to the DEC (old EPA) in respect to prior notification rights for pesticide applications under the NSW Pesticide Act” (Personal email, Mr. Don Want, 16th May 2004).

As well, given that the reliability of concrete slabs is essentially an unknown factor when chemical pesticide barriers are applied around a residence, building codes also need to be seriously addressed.  Slab integrity needs to be tested for porosity before any decision to introduce a toxic nerve agent to a human habitation is made.

REFERENCES

Advanced Cement Technologies [online], Technical Bulletin 10.106   CONCRETE PERMEABILITY High Reactivity Metakaolin (HRM) Engineered Mineral Admixture for Use With Portland Cement, http://metakaolin.com/member/10.106%20Concrete%20Permeability.htm, accessed: July 04, 2004)

Baroghel-Bouny V. (1994), Caractérisation microstructurale et hydrique des pâtes de ciment et des bétons ordinaires et à très hautes performances, Ph. D. thesis, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, LCPC Paris, pp. 467.

CSIRO 2001 [online], New Solution to Costly Alumina Industry Concrete Failure, http://www.cmit.csiro.au/innovation/2001-08/concrete.htm, accessed: July 27, 2004.

Eagle Cement (Natal Portland Cement) [online], Concrete Durability, http://www.npc-eagle.co.za/site/awdep.asp?dealer=5011&depnum=2145, accessed: June 26, 2004)

Healthy Home Association 2003 [online], http://www.healthyhomeassociation.com/1/hhmoisture.htm, accessed: June 25, 2004.

Lamour, V., Haouas, A. & Moranville, M. [online], Chemo-hydro-mechanical behavior of concrete at early ages, LMT Cachan 61, Avenue du Pdt Wilson 94235 Cachan Cedex France, http://arw-bled2004.scix.net/Files/acceptedpapers/Accepted/NATOVL.pdf, accessed: June 25, 2004.

McGrath, Patrick F. Ph.D., 2000 [online], Water Permeability vs Waterproof —  ASCE Met Section Construction Group, Cooper Union Student Chapter, May 25, 2000,

Xypex Chemical Corporation, Richmond, B.C., Canada; 45 Union Road, POBOX 255 Lavington NSW 2641, Australia, http://www.xypex.com.au/support/papers/200211121471.htm, accessed: May 15, 2004.

Park, J.K., Bontoux, L., Holsen, T.M., Jenkins, D. and Selleck, R.E. 1991 [online], ‘Permeation of Polybutylene Pipe and Gasket Material by Organic Chemicals’, Journal of the American Water Works Association (October), AWWA Bookstore Download Center, http://www.techstreet.com/cgi-bin/detail?product_id=883493), accessed: June 2004.

Safe Encasement Systems Midwest 2001, Technical Bulletin No. 01-5 December 2001; revised June 5, 2003, Encasement For Mold And Mildew Situations, http://www.safeencasement.com/articles/MOLD%20and%20COATINGS-TB-01-5-Rev.6.pdf, accessed: June 26, 2004.

Sutan, N. Mohamed, Hamdan, S. and Jin, E.C.C., 2002 [online], Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia, http://www.ndt.net/article/v07n11/sutan2/sutan2.htm, accessed: July 04, 2004)

Polyguard Products Inc. [online] 2003, http://www.polyguardproducts.com/products/architectural/datasheets/750.pdf, UndersealTM XT 750 Positive Side Vertical Waterproofing Membrane with Built-in Protection Board , Ennis, TX, 75120-0755, accessed: June 25, 2004.

Rowe, R.K. 1994, ‘Diffusive transport of pollutants through clay liners’, in Landfilling of Waste: Barriers, eds, T.H. Christensen, R. Cossu and R. Stagmann, E. & F.N. Spon, London, UK.

Watanabe, GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR PREDICTING PHYSICAL DURABILITY OF BUILDING AND BUILDING COMPONENTS, K. Building Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, http://www.cmit.csiro.au/research/special/se_asia/harm_conf1/paper_watanabe.pdf, accessed: July 27, 2004.

Xypex Chemical Corporation 2002a [online], Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.hi-dry.com/faq/, accessed: June 19, 2004.

Xypex Chemical Corporation 2002b [online], (http://www.xypex.com.au/, accessed: June 25, 2004)

DO WASTE DEPOTS LEAK? IF SO, WHAT ARE THE IMPACTS?

DO WASTE DEPOTS LEAK?  IF SO, WHAT ARE THE IMPACTS?

By Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998; Hons I Social Ecology 1999, University of Western Sydney)

http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au
http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people
http://murraythompsongraphics.x90x.net
http://www.causes.com/poisonedpeople
http://www.change.org/profiles/poisoned-people
http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/the-human-right-to-no-pesticide-poisoning

Essay URL:  https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/20/do-waste-depots-leak-if-so-what-are-the-impacts
Short link:  http://wp.me/p2DVqC-2u

My name is Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health, 1998, University of Western Sydney). I have some experience with the issue of both chemical poisoning (http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people) and toxic waste dumps that I would like to offer here:

Landfill Has A Poor Record of Waste Leakage

1. http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/castlereagh/Castlereagh-Liquid-Waste-Disposal-Depot.pdf:

Page 29: “Landfill technology has a poor track record of waste leakage. Of the US EPA’s 163 identified cases of documented environmental or health impacts:
• In 90% of these cases, groundwater was affected
• In 21% of these cases, contaminated drinking water had impacts on human health and aquatic life (Carra 1990:230).

How, exactly, can groundwater be affected by a waste depot? It’s fairly simple: the depot leaks!

And in this respect, please note Greenpeace statements on chemical migration through the Rickabys Creek gravel underlying a notorious waste depot located in north-western Sydney. I will quote here from page 11 of my book titled Global Toxicity (http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/global/MAIN-Global-Toxicity-Chemicals_A-Worldwide-Nightmare.pdf):
“The new [Greenpeace] report says toxic wastes are capable of leaching through the clay and into the permeable gravel layer beneath the clay, which contains the groundwater.

This layer, known as Rickabys Creek Gravel, becomes exposed at the surface in areas downhill from, and close to, the dump.

“If chemicals were leaking from the dump, down into the Rickabys creek Gravel, these chemicals could migrate through the gravel and flow to the surface in neighbouring residential areas”, the report says.

“Almost all of the reported local problems have occurred within or close to the areas where the Rickabys Creek gravel comes to the surface…”

The WMA states that the clay has very low permeability but Greenpeace says many of the wastes dumped at Castlereagh could cause large increases in the permeability of clay…” (Earl 1990:1,4).

See below regarding research “showing that two modes of contaminant escape are possible through clay liners in waste cells (Rowe 1994:219).” (Thompson, et. al. 1998)

And, in terms of the above-mentioned waste depot in Sydney: “the AGC WoodwardClyde 1993 Audit of the depot found toxic waste leakage into groundwater (RAGE 1996:2).” (Thompson, et. al. 1998)

Page 49 of the first report listed above (http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/castlereagh/Castlereagh-Liquid-Waste-Disposal-Depot.pdf): “In 1995 the EPA admitted that there has been leakage of waste cells into groundwater (EPA Spokesman 1995, pers. comm. 29 April), but it was considered that prosecution of the Waste Service would not achieve anything in regard to fixing the problem.” (Thompson, et. al. 1998)

Research Is Against Waste Sites Retaining Their Wastes

2. http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/castlereagh/Toxic-Chemical-Leakage-Outside-Waste-Depot.pdf:

Page 1: “The ADI Half Yearly (to June 1997) Report on the groundwater monitoring program at the Castlereagh Waste Depot clearly shows that the depot is leaking.” (Thompson 1998/2010)

3. http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/global/MAIN-Global-Toxicity-Chemicals_A-Worldwide-Nightmare.pdf:

Page 1: “…modern research on diffusive pollutant transport (Rowe 1994) shows clearly that clay liners not only leak, but will do so against an incoming flow of water into the cell depository.” (Thompson 1998)

Specifically, page 22: ” ‘The objective of controlling the hydraulic conductivity is clearly one of limiting advective contaminant transport (ie the movement of contaminants with moving water) through the liner. However, despite more than a decade of research and the existence of good supporting field data, it is only recently that it has been generally recognized that there is a second contaminant transport process which will occur even through a very low hydraulic conductivity clay liner: that process is chemical diffusion. …diffusion may be the dominant contaminant transport mechanism in a well?constructed clay liner. Furthermore, contaminants can escape from a waste disposal site, by diffusion through a liner, even if water flow in the liner is into the landfill’ (Rowe,1994:219).”

And specifically in relation to the dynamic of waste leakage, on page 11: “The new [Greenpeace] report says toxic wastes are capable of leaching through the clay and into the permeable gravel layer beneath the clay, which contains the groundwater… (Earl 1990:1,4).”

In other words, chemicals can change the permeability of a clay lining in a waste pit. Apart from the buried nightmare of plastic waste cell liners splitting from physical pressures or being pierced by sharp objects mixed in with the waste, what about the significant potential of chemical mixtures dissolving a plastic liner (note how Turpentine dissolves plastic)?  My question here is: Has ANY study been performed to PROVE CONCLUSIVELY that COMBINATIONS of chemical wastes can NOT combine to form mixtures that can “eat” their way through a waste pit liner, whether the liner be clay or plastic (or teflon, or kevlar!)?  What CAN you use that will not leak?  The Precautionary Principle should preclude the entire notion, concept and practice of the burying of toxic waste in cells (and of manufacturing the toxic materials in the first instance!).

The Evidence of Waste Leakage Obvious

The “proof of the pudding” in terms of the specific Castlereagh Liquid Waste Disposal Depot issue noted above and its “one million tonnes of liquid waste” (Kerr, 1995:3) and buried chemicals has been a decades-long legacy of deformed animals, burning skin in children and animals after rain (and aberrant animal behavior in response leading to self-inflicted injuries), cleft palate deformities in children, cadmium contamination of bores, other heavy metal poisoning in adults (e.g. arsenic), statistically significant rare cancers, chronic illness and deaths. This represents an across-the-board slate-wiper influence over an agricultural community burdened with the presence of a waste tip.

See the menu on my website (http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/) for links to other Environmental and Human Health research I have authored. These include articles on Mold/Mycotoxins (Termites & Your Health); Bifenthrin (Biflex), Permethrin & Tralomethrin Mobility, Persistence & Toxicity; Organophosphate Toxicity; Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Symptoms; Pesticide Impact On Children; Mushroom Farming Pollution; Chemical/Pesticide Diffusion Through Concrete Slab Foundations (Impact On Sick Building Syndrome Via Vapor Intrusion); Pesticide & Sperm Impact; and a special essay on how the legal system destroys both the environment (http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/essays/essay3-diminishing-returns-of-complexity.pdf) and poisoning victims’ and other’s mental and financial integrity (http://indiegogo.com/the-good-samaritan and http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/essays/essay2-legal-process-abuse.pdf).

REFERENCES

Carra, J.S. 1990, ‘Municipal solid waste and sanitary landfilling in the United States of America’, in International Perspectives on Municipal Solid Wastes and Sanitary Landfilling, eds J.S. Carra and R. Cossu, Academic Press London.

Earl, B. 1990, ‘Dump leak fear — toxic waste could come to surface: Greenpeace’, Penrith Press, 16 October.

Kerr, P. 1995, ‘Toxic tip to close’, Penrith Press, April 25.

RAGE 1996, ‘Toxic depot to close by the end of 1997’, in RAGE Hawkesbury-Nepean Newsletter, Issue 37, October, RAGE Incorporated, Cranebrook NSW Australia.

Rowe, R.K. 1994, ‘Diffusive transport of pollutants through clay liners’, in Landfilling of Waste: Barriers, eds, T.H. Christensen, R. Cossu and R. Stagmann, E. & F.N. Spon, London, UK.

Thompson, M., Sporl, D., Hunter, W., Sinclair, R., Harvey, R. and Mogster, I. 1998 [Online]. “The Impact of the Castlereagh Liquid Waste Disposal Depot on the Londonderry Terrestrial Environment (including the Hawkesbury River)”. Major Environmental Health University Assignment, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury. Source: http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/castlereagh/Castlereagh-Liquid-Waste-Disposal-Depot.pdf.

Thompson, M. 1998 [Online]. “Global Toxicity: Chemicals – A Worldwide Nightmare (Highlighting the Castlereagh Waste Management Centre and its Impact on Londonderry, Sydney)”, Second Edition (ISBN 0-646-23801-9), published by Murray Thompson. Source: http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/global/MAIN-Global-Toxicity-Chemicals_A-Worldwide-Nightmare.pdf.

Thompson, M. 1998/2010 [Online]. “1997 REPORT SHOWS TOXIC CHEMICAL LEAKAGE OUTSIDE TOXIC DEPOT”. Originally published in RAGE [Residents Action Group for the Environment] Hawkesbury-Nepean Newsletter, Official Newsletter of Londonderry RAGE Incorporated, February 1998. Source: http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au/castlereagh/Toxic-Chemical-Leakage-Outside-Waste-Depot.pdf.

PESTICIDE RISK TO THE UNBORN AND THE BRAIN

ATTACKED AT ALL POINTS: A BRIEF NOTE ON PESTICIDE RISK TO THE UNBORN AND THE BRAIN

By Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998; Hons I Social Ecology 1999, University of Western Sydney)

http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au
http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people
http://murraythompsongraphics.x90x.net
http://www.causes.com/poisonedpeople
http://www.change.org/profiles/poisoned-people
http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/the-human-right-to-no-pesticide-poisoning

Essay URL: https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/pesticide-risk-to-the-unborn-and-the-brain/

Short link:  http://wp.me/p2DVqC-2j

THE UNBORN

A “study showed there was approximately [a] 2-fold greater risk of having a stillbirth if the mother lived within 1 mile from an agricultural area which used organophosphate – pyrethroid[1] – carbamate – or chlorinated pesticides” (Sinclair & Pressinger, no date, citing Bell, et al., 2001).

Where do you live? How close is that farm?  Is your residence downwind from an agricultural area, or do they spray immediately next door and ensure that Chemical Trespass is a certainty?

So, how bad can it be?  Well… pesticides promote foetal death, miscarriages, and premature births (NCAP, 1999:3; Bonn, 2005; Cox, 2004) and are strongly linked to birth defects (Montague, 2001).  A number of chemical substances can be “mutagenic or toxic for reproduction (CMRs) for human beings, and therefore susceptible to induce… congenital malformations and/or infertility” (IDEA 2006).

And, in terms of organophosphates and the first quote above, Glyphosate (commonly known as “Roundup”)… is an organophosphate compound. It is a non-selective, systematic herbicide. This organophosphate compound is the active ingredient in the weedkiller Roundup[2] (Royal Society of Chemistry 2009).

THE BRAIN

Further, long-term, combinations of OPs (related to nerve gases like Sarin) may be producing impairments of intelligence and brain damage (Environmental Working Group 1998a:i).  It is known that a link exists between Attention Deficit Disorder and Glyphosate (Cox, 2004).  And, since it is known that pesticides promote aggressive behaviour and delinquency in teens (Hatherill, 1999; Tvedten, 1999, 2002:2), it should not come as a surprise that chemical pollution, in general, is linked to changes in human behaviour:

1. “Whereas, regarding toxicology, a number of these substances or chemicals are hormone-disrupting chemicals (endocrine disrupters)…” (IDEA 2006). Why do so many today have severe and ongoing hormonal problems?
2. “some [chemicals] are neurotoxic chemicals, leading to degenerative diseases of the central nervous system in adult[s]… and to intellectual impairment in children” (IDEA 2006).

We are being attacked at all points and on all fronts. Our wonderful chemical technologies are enabling the human race to enjoy multiple techno pleasures as our brains rot and our future generations grind to an infertile extinction.

NOTES

[1] Synthetic pyrethroids are used for termite control in public housing.

[2] “Many organophosphates are also associated with irritation of the skin and upper respiratory tract… The controversy over whether neurobehavioural effects persist after recovery from organophosphate poisoning has continued for 30 years… There have been reports of deficits in memory and abstraction on test batteries and subclinical decreases in vibrotactile sensitivity in workers recovering from organophosphate poisoning, but results of clinical and neurological examinations were normal. Among workers who apply organophosphates but have not suffered poisoning episodes, some studies have shown similar types of subclinical neurobehavioural deficits and subclinical electroencephalographic abnormalities… whereas others had largely negative results…” (O’Malley 1997).

“Various epidemiological studies have demonstrated that individuals exposed to a single large toxic dose, or to small subclinical doses, of organophosphorus compounds have developed a chronic neurotoxicity that persists for years after exposure and is distinct from both cholinergic and OPIDN effects… Our review of the literature indicated that these studies describe a nervous system disorder induced by organophosphorous compounds which involves neuronal degeneration and subsequent neurological, neurobehavioral, and neuropsychological consequences” (Abou-Donia, 2003).

The neurobehavioural controversy exists precisely because, as this information clearly shows, most difficult-to-define poisoning impacts are sub-clinical, or presenting as a condition or illness that is not readily identified by the usual orthodox medical investigations (which are generally fairly obtuse). This is why sensitive neuro-psychological tests and behavioural assessment are necessary for those more ‘gently’ touched by pesticides.

REFERENCES

Abou-Donia, Mohamed B., 2003, ‘Organophosphorus Ester-Induced Chronic Neurotoxicity’, Archives of Environmental Health, August 2003 [Vol. 58 (No. 8); [50] endnote reference is: Jamal 1997], Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Bonn, D. (Dorothy) 2005 [Online], ‘Roundup Revelation: Weed Killer Adjuvants May Boost Toxicity’, http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2005/113-6/ss.html; accessed: 14 Sept. 2009.

Cox, C. 2004 [Online], ‘Herbicide Factsheet: Glyphosate’, Journal Of Pesticide Reform/ Winter 2004, Vol. 24, No. 4, Northwest Coalition For Alternatives To Pesticides/NCAP, P.O. Box 1393, Eugene, Oregon 97440 USA / (541)344-5044 / http://www.pesticide.org; accessed: 2005.

Environmental Working Group 1998a [Online]. “Overexposed”, Environmental Working Group, 1718 Connecticut Avenue (http://ewg.org/pub/home/reports/.html), N.W. Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20009, District of Columbia, Maryland USA.

Hatherill, J.R. (Dr.) 1999 [Online], ARE TODAY’S TEENS MORE TOXIC?, Chicago Tribune, Chicago, Ill; Jun 15, 1999; pg. 19; and http://www.veg.ca/lifelines/sepoc99/teens.htm; accessed: 2006.

IDEA (Irish Doctors Environmental Association) 2006, THE PARIS APPEAL: International Declaration on Diseases Due to Chemical Pollution,
http://www.ideaireland.org; accessed: 10th October 2007.

Montague, P. (National Writers Union) 2001, ‘#726 – Science, Precaution and Pesticides, 06-Jun-2001’, in http://www.rachel.org/en/node/5340; accessed: 16 July 2008. Reference [2] cited: Susan Osburn, RESEARCH REPORT: DO PESTICIDES CAUSE LYMPHOMA? Available by U.S. mail from Lymphoma Foundation of America, P.O. Box 15335, Chevy Chase, MD 20825. Tel. (202) 223-6181. ISBN 0-9705127-0-8. Available at: http://www.lymphomahelp.org/docs/research/researchreport/rr_2000.pdf.

O’Malley, M. 1997, ‘Clinical evaluation of pesticide exposure and poisonings’, Lancet 1997; 349: 1161-66. O’Malley citations: [11] Tabershaw, I., & Cooper, W.C., 1966, ‘Sequelae of acute organophosphate poisoning’, J Occup Med 1966; 8: 5-10; [12]Rosenstock, L., Daniell, W., Barnhart, S., Schwartz, D., Demers, P.A., 1990, ‘Chronic neuropsychological sequelae of occupational exposure to organophosphate insecticides’, Am J Ind Med 1990; 18: 321-25; [13]Savage, E., Keefe, T., Mounce, L., Heaton, R., Lewis, J., Burcar, P., 1990, ‘Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning’, Arch Environ Health 1990; 43: 38-45; [14]Rosenstock, L., Keifer, M., Daniell, W., et al. 1990, ‘Chronic central nervous system effects of acute organophosphate pesticide intoxication’, Lancet 1990; 338: 223-27; [15]Steenland, K., Jenkins, B., Ames, R., O’Malley, M., Chrislop, D., Russo, J., 1995, ‘Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning’, Am J Public Health 1995; 84: 731-36; [16]Stephens, R., Spurgeon, A., Calvert, I.A., et al. 1995, ‘Neuropsychological effects of long-term exposure to organophosphates in sheep dip’, Lancet 1995; 345: 1135-39; [17]Metcalf, D.R., & Holmes, J.H. 1969, ‘EEG, physiological and neurological alterations in humans with organophosphorous exposure’, Ann NY Acad Sci 1969; 160: 357-65; [18] Ames, R., Steenland, K., Jenkins, B., Chrislop, D., Russo, J. 1995, ‘Chronic neurological sequelae to cholinesterase inhibitions among agricultural pesticide applicators’, Arch Environ Health 1995; 50: 440-43; [19]Maizlish, N., Schenker, M., Weisskopf, C., Seiber, J., Samuels, S. 1987, ‘A behavioral evaluation of pest control workers with short-term, low-level exposure to the organophosphate diazinon’, Am J Ind Med 1987; 12: 153-72.

Royal Society of Chemistry 2009, ‘Soundbite molecules’, http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2005Mar/Soundbitemolecules.asp; accessed: 4th June 2009.

Sinclair, W. (M.D.; Board Certified Immunology) & Pressinger, R. (M.Ed.) no date [Online].  “Home and Lawn Pesticides More Dangerous than Previously Believed”; Source: http://www.chem-tox.com.pesticides; accessed: 17 July 2008.

Tvedten, S.L. 1999, 2002, The Bug Stops Here, compiled from The Best Control II – Intelligent Pest Management, Copyright 1998 and 2002 by Stephen Tvedten.

THE NECRO-CORPORATIZATION OF FOOD: THE NEW GMO FASCISM IN A NOT-SO-BRAVE-NEW-WORLD

THE NECRO-CORPORATIZATION OF FOOD: THE NEW GMO FASCISM IN A NOT-SO-BRAVE-NEW-WORLD
By Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998; Hons I Social Ecology 1999, University of Western Sydney)

http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au
http://indiegogo.com/poisoned-people
http://murraythompsongraphics.x90x.net
http://www.causes.com/poisonedpeople
http://www.change.org/profiles/poisoned-people
http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/the-human-right-to-no-pesticide-poisoning

Essay URL: https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/

Short link:  http://wp.me/p2DVqC-2f

The corporatization of food is manifesting through the global monopolization of the seed industry (Wilson 2005). The basic strategy of small farms saving seed annually is under threat by new genetic technologies that prevent seed-saving by sterilizing both transgenic and conventional seeds (Shand & Mooney 1998).

This is called “Terminator” seed technology, and the USDA sees this patented seed technology as being demanded by their mission to protect US agriculture. The problem is that this approach, while favoring the corporate ideal of creating corporate wealth via new transgenic seed markets, stands as a massive threat to food security and biodiversity, especially in poor areas where seed exchange is a primary dynamic. Preventing farmers from saving and germinating a second generation of seed gives companies across the board bio-control in non-hybrid crops. Millions of farmers use and depend on seed produced and saved locally (Shand & Mooney 1998).

Monsanto is the manufacturer of Aspartame, or NutraSweet (Aspartame synonyms: Equal; NutraSweet; L-Phenylalanine, N-L-alpha-aspartyl-, 1-methyl ester; L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester; L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-methylester – C14H18N2O5 ; 294.31 [chemfinder.com 1999]). This diverse company also genetically engineers food crops or “GMOs” (usually referred to as “genetically modified organisms”, shortened to “GM”, or also called “GE” for “genetically engineered”).

When a farmer acquires seed from Monsanto, there is no sale or exchange of property. The Monsanto contract says the farmer is accessing the genetic material in the seed for one growing season, not buying the seed. Also, the new seed from the harvest does not become the property of the farmer. The outcome of this contract scenario is that new seed must be purchased from three of four giant transnational corporations who have a literal lock on the seeds and on the intellectual information contained in those seeds. This indicates a basic change in agriculture and a change in farmers’ sovereignty. This is why farmers are now waking up and starting to reject this corporate setup (Rifkin 1999).

As well, “Monsanto puts pressure on farmers, farmers’ co-ops, seed dealers, and anyone else it suspects may have infringed its patents of genetically modified seeds. To do this, Monsanto relies on a shadowy army of private investigators and agents. They secretly videotape and photograph farmers, store owners, and co-ops. They infiltrate community meetings. They gather information from informants about farming activities. Some Monsanto agents pretend to be surveyors. Others confront farmers on their land and try to pressure them to sign papers giving Monsanto access to their private records. Farmers call them the “seed police” and use words such as “Gestapo” and “Mafia” to describe their tactics” (Mercola 2008, citing Barlett & Steele 2008).

This is yet another example where corporatism is engineering a fascist Extinction Level Event of agricultural biodiversity and simple human freedoms and independence. Corporate Fascism is once again stalking an entire planet’s freedom. Our food resources are under grave threat through the setting up of restrictions that will compound, in the very near future, into monumental deficits, even worldwide famine. The loss of farmers’ sovereignty is yet another example of how corporations are steadily and inexorably destroying the cultural and employment diversity of the global population. This loss of diversity will have impacts similar to that seen in nature where plant and animal diversity is dissolving into infertility and extinctions by the minute. Social diseases and suicides follow the disjunction of people from the land, while the pathology of real disease raises its profile throughout a tormented nature and our intersection with it (see Essays at: https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/).

Flyvbjerg (1993) says: “We live in an unprecedented historical period. Within the past few decades the actions of mankind have become, for the first time ever, a threat to life as we know it, not only through nuclear disasters that may or may not happen but through changes in the global ecology that are happening. Earlier the continuance of life on the planet was taken as given rather than subject to a question mark. No wonder, then, it has been said we live in a post-era: post-rational, post-enlightenment, post-modern, post-foundationalist, post-structuralist. If any one phenomenon distinguishes the start of a new era and a post-condition, it is this: humanity’s newly achieved ability to effectively destroy its own sustenance. The world has become post-immortal… there is no longer any assurance of its immortality. We live in a world-at-risk, where life has become contingent upon our own actions2 (Flyvbjerg 1993:12; 2 reference is: Richman, N. pers. comm.).

REFERENCES

Barlett, D.L (Donald) and Steele, J.B. (James) 2008 [Online], ‘Monsanto’s Harvest of Fear’, in Vanity Fair, http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2008/05/monsanto200805, accessed: 2 May 2008.

chemfinder.com 1999 [Online], Aspartame, http://www.chemfinder.com/cgi-win/cfserver.exe/.

Flyvbjerg, B. 1993, ‘Aristotle, Foucault and Progressive Phronesis: Outline of an Applied Ethics for Sustainable Development’, in Applied Ethics – A Reader, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Mercola, J. (Joseph; Dr.) 2008 [Online], ‘This Company May Be the Biggest Threat to Your Future Health’, in Mercola.com, http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2008/05/01/this-company-may-be-the-biggest-threat-to-your-future-health.aspx?source=nl, accessed: 2 May 2008.

Rifkin, J. 1999 [TV program], comment in Foreign Correspondent, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 3rd August.

Shand, H. (Hope) & Mooney, P. (Pat) 1998 [Online], ‘Terminator Seeds Threaten an End to Farming’ (Earth Island Journal, Fall, 1998), in Third World Traveller, http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Transnational_corps/TerminatorSeeds_Monsanto.html, accessed: 25 Jan. 2008.

Wilson, T. (Tasha) 2005 [Online], Seeds of Life, http://csanr.wsu.edu/DemoFarms/seedslife.pdf, accessed:25 Jan. 2008.

DISEASE AMPLIFICATION IN THIS MODERN ERA: A DISASTROUS COMBINATION OF FACTORS

Foundational Precursors of Future Events

Note that this Essay can replace entirely 1.0  Foundational Precursors of Future Events in my formerly published Essay titled: “BRIEF GLOBAL SYNOPSIS: ACROSS-THE-BOARD ENVIRONMENTAL DISTURBANCE & REPLACEMENT VIA HUMAN ACTIVITIES. WHAT IS EXPECTED? PANDEMICS OF ANIMAL DISEASES (MAD COW, FOOT & MOUTH, BIRD & PIG INFLUENZA) & HUMAN DISEASES/DYSFUNCTION (SARS, LYME, WEST NILE VIRUS, PESTICIDE & CHEMICALLY-INDUCED MISCARRIAGES, ADHD, CANCERS, HIV/AIDS, EBOLA, MOTOR NEURONE DISEASE, INFERTILITY, MCS/METABOLIC SYNDROME, LUPUS, etc)”.  The REFERENCES in this Essay will also update and replace those (entirely) of the former Essay.

Diseases today are a factor of the meshing of many dynamics.

Here are some of the prominent factors now bringing about a rapid alteration of older, long-time established disease patterns:

1. The doubling of global population before 2015.

2. From 1990 to 2020 developing countries will see the proportion of their total populations that inhabit urban areas increase from approximately 37% to 52%.

3. Globally (in developing and developed countries), health problems as a function of environmental pollution are likely to amplify.

4. Environmental change, as a function of increasing global temperatures, will occur.

5. Zoonotic disease [inter-species infectious diseases] patterns will change. There is an increasing incidence of newly recognized or emerging, or re-emerging older diseases. Alterations of the natural environment, including the replacement of formerly uninhabited areas with human settlements [see my Essay: https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/many-diseases-come-from-a-disturbed-nature/%5D, are prominent causes here. Also, greater demands for animal protein, intensive animal production, and an amplification of the live animal trade (including animal products) are contributors (World Health Organization 2002:10).

6. As a further expansion of the third point above, there is the matter of pesticide and other chemically-induced and/or aggravated disease. First: “In the United States, more than 18,000 products are licensed for use, and each year > 2 billion pounds of pesticides are applied to crops, homes, schools, parks, and forests” (Kamel & Hoppin, 2004).

• Cancers, foetal death, miscarriages, premature births (NCAP, 1999:3; Bonn, 2005; Cox, 2004) and ADHD (Cox, 2004) are all now linked to pesticides.

• There are increased stillbirth rates with proximity to agricultural areas using organophosphate – pyrethroid – carbamate – or chlorinated pesticides (Sinclair & Pressinger, no date, citing Bell, et al., 2001).

• Pesticides are strongly linked to birth defects (Montague, 2001).

• “Two separate studies in Sweden have linked exposure to Glyphosate to Hairy Cell Leukemia and Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. These types of cancers were extremely rare, however Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in the Western world. It has risen by 73% in the USA since 1973. Another study has found a higher incidence of Parkinson disease amongst farmers who used herbicides, including glyphosate” (Leu, 2007 citing Cox, 1998; Lehmann & Pengue, 2000; Nordstrom, et al., 1998; Hardell & Eriksson, 1999). Cox, 2004 and Vachani, 2007 also linked Roundup to Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

• Roundup causes genetic mutations in cell tests (NCAP, 2000:2, citing Vigfusson & Vyse, 1980; Kale et al., 1995; Rank et al., 1993). It is “a known carcinogen, neurotoxin, irritant, and has been found to kill human embryonic cells, and can cause kidney and liver damage” (BeyondPesticides.org 2012). Roundup has been heavily implicated in thyroid, liver and pancreatic tumours in test animals (Cox, 1993:4, citing Dykstra & Ghali, 1991). Roundup is also now shockingly linked to Mad Cow’s Disease (Rotella 2003), and to an increase in plant diseases (gmwatch.org 2010).

• MCS: “Multiple chemical sensitivity (1) (MCS), also known as chemical intolerance, multiple chemical sensitivities, chemical sensitivity, or toxicant induced loss of tolerance (TILT) is an illness or disease where previous chemical exposure appears to initiate the wide ranging sensitivities characteristic of MCS” (Pall 2009?a). As well, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has been linked to “viral infection, bacterial infection, organophosphorus pesticide exposure, carbon monoxide exposure, ciguatoxin poisoning, physical trauma, severe psychological stress, toxoplasmosis (protozoan) infection, ionizing radiation exposure” (Pall 2009?b).

Type 2 Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome: “Recent epidemiological studies have found that background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs)—xenobiotics accumulated in adipose tissue—is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome (1–3), suggesting that POPs may play a key role in their pathogenesis” (Lee, et al. 2008).

• Motor neurone disease: “Most studies have focused on organophosphate insecticides, but some found neuro-toxic effects from other pesticides, including fungicides, fumigants, and organochlorine and carbamate insecticides. Pesticide exposure may also be associated with increased risk of Parkinson disease; several classes of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, have been implicated” (Kamel & Hoppin, 2004).

• Autoimmune diseases: The findings of a study linked environmental pesticide exposure to the development of autoimmune rheumatic diseases (Parks, et al. 2011). As well, a study of 75,000 women who used insecticides inside the home and in the garden demonstrated a strong link between the pesticides and the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis and lupus (Laino, 2009).

7. And we have not here even begun to touch upon a whole other world of disease pain in terms of medication-induced disease. Note Thalidomide as a matter of historical course, and the recent exposition of the link between Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: “Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less” (Schultz, et al., 2008).

In brief summary at this point: “Most tragically, suffering, illness and disease surround us today in a way we would not have imagined a half century ago. We have banished some diseases only to have them replaced by a grumbling yet profound toxicity which is stripping our children of their rightful future” (Donohoe, 1998:38). That “grumble” is now accelerating into an across-the-board pandemic roar!

 

REFERENCES

American Society of Microbiology 1999, Science News, June 5.

Biotechnology Information 2010 [Online]. Article: “West Nile Virus”, in PubMed Health, A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia; Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004457/; accessed: 10 October, 2012).

Garrett, L. [Laurie] 1994. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases In A World Out Of Balance, Farrar Straus & Giroux.

Garret, L. 2001. Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health. Hyperion.

http://en.wikipedia.org 2012a [Online]. Article: “Lyme disease”; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyme_disease; accessed: 10 October, 2012.

http://en.wikipedia.org 2012b [Online]. “West Nile Virus”; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_virus; accessed: 10 October, 2012b.

http://en.wikipedia.org 2012c [Online]. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome”; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome; accessed: 12 October 2012.

Kamel, F. [Freya] & Hoppin, J.A. [Jane] 2004 [Online]. “Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease”; ehp Environmental Health Perspectives; Environ Health Perspect. 2004 June; 112(9): 950–958. Published online 2004 May 20. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7135. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1247187/; accessed: 15 October 2012.

Laino, C. [Charlene] 2009 [Online]. “Insecticides May Raise Risk of Lupus, RA. Study Shows Increased Risk of Autoimmune Diseases in Women Who Use Insecticides”. WebMD Health News; Source: http://lupus.webmd.com/news/20091020/insecticides-may-raise-risk-of-lupus-ra; accessed: 15 October 2012.

Lappe, F.M. & Collins, J. 1979, World Hunger: Ten Myths, Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, Calif. (USA).

Lee, D. [Duk-Hee, Jacobs (Jr.), D.R. [David] & Steffes, M. [Michael], 2008 [Online]. “Association of Organochlorine Pesticides with Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Diabetes or Impaired Fasting Glucose”; Diabetes. 2008 November; 57(11): 3108–3111. doi: 10.2337/db08-0668. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2570408/; accessed: 15 October 2012.

Pall, M.L. [Martin; Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences,
Washington State University and Research Director of the Tenth Paradigm Research Group] 2009?a [Online]. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Toxicological and Sensitivity Mechanisms”; Source: http://www.thetenthparadigm.org/mcs09.htm; accessed: 15 October 2012.

Pall, M.L. [Martin; Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences,
Washington State University and Research Director of the Tenth Paradigm Research Group] 2009?b [Online]. “Novel Disease Paradigm Produces Explanations for a Whole Group of Illnesses. A Common Causal (Etiologic) Mechanism for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Fibromyalgia and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder”; Source: http://www.thetenthparadigm.org/; accessed: 15 October 2012.

Parks, C.G., Walitt, B.T., Pettinger, M., Chen, J.C., de Roos, A.J., Hunt, J., Sarto, G., & Howard, B.V., 2011 [Online]. “Insecticide use and risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study”. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Feb;63(2):184-94. doi: 10.1002/acr.20335. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20740609; accessed: 15 October 2012.

Pierce County Washington 2002 [Online]. “EPIDEMIC (ANIMAL AND HUMAN)”; Source: http://www.co.pierce.wa.us/xml/abtus/ourorg/dem/EMDiv/HIVA/epidemic.pdf; accessed: 10 October 2012.

Preston, R. 1994. The Hot Zone, Transworld Publishers (Doubleday), Moorebank NSW Australia.

Schultz, S.T. [Stephen], Klonoff-Cohen, H.S. [Hilary], Wingard, D.L. [Deborah], Akshoomoff, N.A. [Natasha], Macera, C.A. [Caroline] & Ji, M. [Ming], 2008 [Online]. “Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder. The results of a parent survey”. Autism May 2008 vol. 12 no. 3 293-307; Source: http://aut.sagepub.com/content/12/3/293.short; accessed: 14 Oct. 2012.

World Health Organization 2002 [Online]. WHO Technical Report Series 907: “FUTURE TRENDS IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH”; Source: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_907.pdf; accessed: 10 October 2012.

PANDEMIC

BRIEF GLOBAL SYNOPSIS: ACROSS-THE-BOARD ENVIRONMENTAL DISTURBANCE & REPLACEMENT VIA HUMAN ACTIVITIES. WHAT IS EXPECTED? PANDEMICS OF ANIMAL DISEASES (MAD COW, FOOT & MOUTH, BIRD & PIG INFLUENZA) & HUMAN DISEASES/DYSFUNCTION (SARS, LYME, WEST NILE VIRUS, PESTICIDE & CHEMICALLY-INDUCED MISCARRIAGES, ADHD, CANCERS, HIV/AIDS, EBOLA, MOTOR NEURONE DISEASE, INFERTILITY, MCS/METABOLIC SYNDROME, LUPUS, etc)

By Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998, University of Western Sydney)

http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au
http://poisonedpeople.com
http://murraythompsongraphics.x90x.net
http://www.causes.com/poisonedpeople
http://www.change.org/profiles/poisoned-people
http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/the-human-right-to-no-pesticide-poisoning

Essay URL:  https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/pandemic/

Short link:  http://wp.me/s2DVqC-pandemic

1.0 Foundational Precursors of Future Events

Here are some of the prominent factors now bringing about a rapid alteration of older, long-time established disease patterns:

• The doubling of global population before 2015.
• From 1990 to 2020 developing countries will see the proportion of their total populations that inhabit urban areas increase from approximately 37% to 52%.
• Globally (in developing and developed countries), health problems as a function of environmental pollution are likely to amplify.
• Environmental change, as a function of increasing global temperatures, will occur.
• Zoonotic disease [inter-species infectious diseases] patterns will change. There is an increasing incidence of newly recognized or emerging, or re-emerging older diseases. Alterations of the natural environment, including the replacement of formerly uninhabited areas with human settlements [see my Essay: https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/many-diseases-come-from-a-disturbed-nature/%5D, are prominent causes here. Also, greater demands for animal protein, intensive animal production, and an amplification of the live animal trade (including animal products) are contributors (World Health Organization 2002:10).

2.0 Developments and Amplifications

The overall outcome is inevitable. Changing human disease patterns will be impacted by “high population densities, movements of human populations within and between countries, and changes in lifestyles [consider war and refugee movements here, too]. Infectious diseases will remain the major causes of mortality in most developing countries, with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and opportunistic infections (including zoonoses) being especially important. The problem will be exacerbated as the proportion of immunosuppressed people in the population increases” (World Health Organization 2002:10).

What we are witnessing today is a massive and global synergy of immunosuppression (on a basis of profligate toxic chemical usage) and disease emergence and amplification.

“Two examples of zoonotic diseases that have recently become prominent are Lyme disease and West Nile virus. Both of these diseases have their roots in animal populations and apparently were only recently transferred to human populations” (Pierce County Washington 2002:4). How recently?

“Although Allen Steere [professor of rheumatology at Harvard University] realized that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease in 1978, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1981, when B. burgdorferi was identified by Willy Burgdorfer” (http://en.wikipedia.org 2012a).

“West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States in the summer of 1999 in New York” (National Center for Biotechnology Information 2010). “West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus” (http://en.wikipedia.org 2012b).

As well, there is, notably, SARS. “Between November 2002 and July 2003, an outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong nearly became a pandemic, with 8,422 cases and 916 deaths worldwide…” (http://en.wikipedia.org 2012c).

These are just three examples of diseases breaking out of nature and releasing into human populations. And these may be “nothing” in comparison to a filovirus called “Ebola”. The kill rate in humans for Ebola Zaire is nine out of ten. It is a slate wiper in humans, so in a sense, the earth is mounting an immune response against our human species (Preston 1994:319-20).

3.0 “Armed” Inevitabilities

We have backed ourselves into a corner from which THERE IS NO ESCAPE. A global and aberrant overpopulation dynamic saturated in chemical toxicants is leading an accelerating and catastrophic wave of incursion into forested and other natural areas, environments ALREADY RADICALLY AFFECTED BY GLOBAL POLLUTION. Affected in what way? Viruses locked away deep in nature have been “washed” for decades by air pollution. Thus, they have been “pre-armed” with chemical resistance and are now releasing into indigenous (and other) human communities that are infectiously compliant due to broad immunosuppression.

See how mining pollutes lands and leaves indigenous populations devastated in this Essay: https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/mining-destroys-environmental-health-creates-martian-wastelands-human-health-human-rights. What I did not address in this particular Essay is the resulting immunosuppression amongst the ‘locals’, those closest to the rainforest who can be the first to transmit the start of an epidemic. Further, these populations, thanks to modern transport, are not far removed at any point on this globe from extensive land travel opportunities and then, in terms of intersection, international travel vectors via others who can afford to do so.

As well, this immunosuppression is fatally backed by antibiotic resistance.

In regard to antibiotics and our, especially, CORPORATE (Big Ag, Biotech, Big Pharma) proclivity for assuming that control is best: “Unfortunately, we played a trick on the natural world by seizing control of these [natural] chemicals, making them more perfect in a way that has changed the whole microbial constitution of the developing countries. We have organisms now proliferating that never existed before in nature. We have selected them. We have organisms that probably caused a tenth of a percent of human disease in the past that now cause twenty, thirty percent of the disease that we’re seeing. We have changed the whole face of the earth by the use of antibiotics” (Garrett 1994:437, quoting Lappe & Collins 1979).

Further: “Bacteria that have developed immunity to antibiotic drugs pose a large and growing threat to the success of modern medicine. These studies demonstrate that antibiotic resistance is literally streaming across America and what has not been appreciated is the extent of contamination” (American Society of Microbiology 1999).

4.0 Perfect Storm

The human corporate biotech miasma of “greed, corruption, arrogance, tyranny, and callousness” leads us today into inevitable perfect storm opportunities: pathogens can and will rapidly and extensively populate and dominate the world becoming the new numero uno apex predator. This is PANDEMIC.

REFERENCES

American Society of Microbiology 1999, Science News, June 5.

Biotechnology Information 2010 [Online]. Article: “West Nile Virus”, in PubMed Health, A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia; Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004457/; accessed: 10 October, 2012).

Garrett, L. [Laurie] 1994. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases In A World Out Of Balance, Farrar Straus & Giroux.

Garret, L. 2001. Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health. Hyperion.

http://en.wikipedia.org 2012a [Online]. Article: “Lyme disease”; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyme_disease; accessed: 10 October, 2012.

http://en.wikipedia.org 2012b [Online]. “West Nile Virus”; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_virus; accessed: 10 October, 2012b.

http://en.wikipedia.org 2012c [Online]. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome”; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome; accessed: 12 October 2012.

Lappe, F.M. & Collins, J. 1979, World Hunger: Ten Myths, Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, Calif. (USA).

Pierce County Washington 2002 [Online]. “EPIDEMIC (ANIMAL AND HUMAN)”; Source: http://www.co.pierce.wa.us/xml/abtus/ourorg/dem/EMDiv/HIVA/epidemic.pdf; accessed: 10 October 2012.

Preston, R. 1994. The Hot Zone, Transworld Publishers (Doubleday), Moorebank NSW Australia.

World Health Organization 2002 [Online]. WHO Technical Report Series 907: “FUTURE TRENDS IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH”; Source: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_907.pdf; accessed: 10 October 2012.

MANY DISEASES COME FROM A DISTURBED NATURE

MANY DISEASES COME FROM A DISTURBED NATURE

By Murray Thompson (BAppSci Environmental Health 1998; Hons I Social Ecology 1999, University of Western Sydney)

http://poisoningandlegalaction.com.au
http://poisonedpeople.com
http://murraythompsongraphics.x90x.net
http://www.causes.com/poisonedpeople
http://www.change.org/profiles/poisoned-people
http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/the-human-right-to-no-pesticide-poisoning

https://poisonedpeople1.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/many-diseases-come-from-a-disturbed-nature/

Many of our human diseases come from a disturbed NATURE. My name is Murray Thompson and I live in Australia. I’m trying to raise awareness of the overall connected ENVIRONMENTAL issues of toxic chemical poisoning & Lyme disease by networking with people who share my concerns in these areas. In particular I am addressing pesticide exposure and toxic assault and, yes, also Lyme Disease as well because Lyme seems to arise, like many environmental imbalances, out of disturbed and chemically affected environments. That is, Lyme demonstrates well “a developing model of infectious disease that shows that most epidemics — AIDS, Ebola, West Nile, SARS, Lyme disease and hundreds more that have occurred over the last several decades — don’t just happen. They are the result of things people do to nature” (Robbins 2012) in their typical fracturing of the “Web of Life” where diseases escape from nature and turn into pandemics (ibid.).

Lyme creates injury victims who then have to deal with a range of profoundly difficult and painful disability issues. Chemical poisoning and Lyme victims seem to share aspects of MCS, myalgia, polyarthralgia and Metabolic Syndrome issues. Ultimately, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and Lyme are ENVIRONMENTALLY (and particularly in terms of the human presumption of superiority over nature) connected at the hip.

Specifically, and in terms of housing authorities’ and pesticide companies’ presumption of superiority over Human Health imperatives, my son and I were attacked in our own home in late 2000 and 2001, and the attackers took away our health. This occurred one year into my Sociology PhD studies. This cruel event poisoned the life out of me and has also severely retarded my thesis (I still haven’t finished!). We were poisoned by pesticide, MULTIPLE times (brain damage, polyarthralgia, sperm damage, chronic fatigue, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, depression, suicidal ideation). But what happens when you bring this kind of gross injury to the attention of the “authorities”? Has the medical or legal system ever made your chemical/pesticide or other injuries/diseases invisible, and then, in their weakness and cringing protection of vested interests, made YOU entirely responsible for your “insanity”; incomprehensibly and aggressively blamed YOU?! Read on…

My “indiegogo.com” PESTICIDE POISONING CAMPAIGN is (http://www.indiegogo.com/poisoned-people). My favorite image I have created is: https://poisonedpeople1.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/what-the-hell-are-we-doing.jpg (it depicts the toxics our children are exposed to).

REFERENCES
Robbins, J. 2012 [Online], “The Ecology of Disease”, The New York Sunday Review | The Opinion Pages; Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/15/sunday-review/the-ecology-of-disease.html?pagewanted=all; accessed: 18 Sept. 2012.